TEI P5 Customization and Encoding Guidelines for Manuscript Description

These guidelines represent a community effort to develop uniform good practice in the cataloguing manuscripts using TEI. They are currently used by cataloguers at a number of institutions including the British Library, the Bodleian Libraries, Cambridge University Library, the John Rylands Library, and the Wellcome Trust. They remain under development and contributions are welcome via pull requests or issues submitted to the GitHub repository.

Table of contents

1. Encoding guidelines

1.1. Introduction

TEI P5 ODD Customization for Manuscripts in Oxford Libaries and the Fihrist and Senmai union catalogues

1.2. Acknowledgements

These draft guidelines are currently based on two main sources - the encoding guidelines for the Fihrist project [pdf], and encoding guidelines for medieval manuscripts jointly created by Cambridge University Library (James Freeman, with Suzanne Paul) and the Bodleian Library (Matthew Holford) with contributions by Andrew Dunning (formerly British Library). The medieval guidelines in turn draw in places on the guidelines created by Patrick Granholm and Eva Nyström for manuscripta.se.

1.3. General principles

1.3.1. Foreign Phrases and Words

Phrases or words in other languages than English may be tagged by adding the xml:lang attribute to the element enclosing the text, or where no other element is available with a <foreign> element and a xml:lang attribute. By default this text displays in italic when rendered in the online catalogue.

1.3.2. References to Locations within a Manuscript

References to a specific location or range within a manuscripts should be given in a <locus> element. The from and to attributes are optional but recommended, as they enable links to images to be generated and allow calculation of the length of manuscript items.

If from and to attributes are used to refer to a specific folio or page they should be used with identical values. The foliation scheme should be specified in the scheme attribute with the value folios or pages (the default is assumed to be folios. Lines and/or columns may be specified, e.g. fol. 1r, col. a, line 10 to fol. 2v, column b, line 5.

If reference to columns of text is necessary, use lower-case letters: a, b, c, etc. The lettering should begin with the first column on the left, and move across to the right. The sequence should begin afresh on each page (i.e. the letters do not run concurrently from recto to verso, or across an opening).

To identify columns / lines in the from or to attributes, use (for example):
<locus from="1ra10to="2vb5">(fols. 1ra, line 10 - 2vb, line 5)</locus>
Text in margins:
<locus from="1rto="10r">(fols. 1r-10r, margins)</locus>
For texts scattered over more than one location in the manuscript the <locusGrp> element should be used.
<locusGrp>  <locus from="356rbto="356vb">Fols 356<hi rend="superscript">rb-vb</hi>,</locus>  <locus from="374rato="374rb">374<hi rend="superscript">rab</hi>  </locus> </locusGrp>

1.3.3. Personal Names

Persons, if not in an <author> or <editor> element, should be tagged using the <persName> element. For indexing to function correctly this MUST be linked to the persons authority file using the key attribute. The role of the person referred to should be indicated using the role attribute. Values should correspond to the Library of Congress relator term list (http://www.loc.gov/marc//relators/relaterm.html). The most commonly occurring roles are: "aut" (author), "bnd" (binder), "scr" (scribe), "art" (artist; NB this is preferred to illustrator), "fmo" (former owner),"sgn" (signer), "pat" (patron). If necessary, multiple roles can be separated with whitespace.
Common-place book of <persName key="person_697role="scr fmo">John Curteys</persName> of Winchester College and New College, Oxford
To record alternative names for a person in such contexts, use nested <persName> elements, for example:
<persName key="person_f6124role="scr">  <persName xml:lang="fa-Latn-x-lc">ʿAbd al-Raḥmān</persName> (<persName xml:lang="fa">عبد الرحمان</persName>) </persName>

Use "fmo" where there is evidence that a person owned an item. Use "sgn" where the person is only associated with the item by a signature or an inscription which does not necessarily imply ownership. "dnr" (donor) may be used where the person gave the manuscript to an institution but evidence of ownership before the gift is lacking; i.e. to describe manuscripts apparently bought or made with the intention of being directly presented, or manuscripts may have been purchased with money given by a donor rather than directly presented.

1.3.4. Corporate / Organization Names

Corporate entities should be tagged using the <orgName> element. For indexing to function correctly this MUST be linked to the persons authority file using the key attribute. The role of the organization referred to should be indicated using the role attribute. Values should correspond to the Library of Congress relator term list (http://www.loc.gov/marc//relators/relaterm.html). Separate multiple roles with whitespace.
<orgName key="org_148998848role="fmo">Würzburg, Domstift St Kilian</orgName>, 12th-century ex libris, fol. 1r, and 15th-century shelfmark, fol. 2r.

1.3.5. Placenames

In sections relating to manuscript contents, physical description and provenance, placenames should be tagged using the <placeName>. For indexing to function correctly this MUST be linked to the places authority file using the key attribute.
<placeName key="place_1234">Bologna</placeName>
  • placeName (place name) contains an absolute or relative place name.
    key [att.canonical] provides an externally-defined means of identifying the entity (or entities) being named, using a coded value of some kind.

In the <origPlace> element, placenames should be tagged using (as appropriate) <country>, <region> and <settlement>. Again, for indexing to function correctly these MUST be linked to the places authority file using the key attribute. See under origPlace.

To accommodate geodata in legacy data, or for use by other systems, <geo> elements are permitted. But they are not displayed in catalogue web sites. For example, from the International Dunhuang Project:

<origPlace>DHMG.(Dunhuang Mogao) DHMG.17. <geo n="min">94.80388888888889198 40.03638888888888658</geo>  <geo n="max">95.9375 40.04833333333333201</geo> </origPlace>

In other cataloguing projects geodata should be given in the places authority file.

1.3.7. Formatting

In general, where possible, formatting should be carried out using semantic markup rather than using the <hi> element.

However, where use of the <hi> element is unavoidable, it should be used with the following values on rend:

  • superscript
  • subscript
  • underline

Multiple values may be separated by whitespace.

If correct formatting is not possible using these values, raise an issue on GitHub to add further values.

1.3.8. Attribute values

Attribute values forming more than one word in natural language should be given in camelCase.

1.3.9. Transcription

Transcriptions from the manuscript in the <rubric>, <incipit>, <explicit>, etc. elements, or in the provenance section, should be made diplomatically. Expand standard abbreviations silently. If the abbreviation can be expanded with some but not complete confidence, enclose the expansion in the <ex> element. Denote uncertain or ambiguous abbreviations with the character ’ [U0146], e.g. Westm’

Use capital letters only when they appear in the manuscript.

Transcription of special characters: e-caudata should be transcribed using U+0119: Latin Small Letter E With Ogonek

The relevant elements from the TEI transcription module should be used (see especially 11.3.3.2, http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/tei-p5-doc/en/html/PH.html#PHCOMB)

For retroconversion, reproduce the text as given in the printed catalogue. Where abbreviation is indicated typographically, e.g. with italic font or between parentheses, indicate this using the <ex> element. Typographic indications of insertion, deletion, omission, supplied text, etc., using symbols such as [], \/, should be replaced with the relevant elements from the TEI transcription module.

Manuscript punctuation may be simplified by replacing the punctus versus and punctus elevatus with a point (.).

Indicate damage using the <damage> element.

Errors in the manuscript may be indicated using the <sic> and <corr> and <choice> elements. <sic> by itself simply signals the presence of an error, <corr> provides the correction.
<!-- MS. Add. C. 145 --> Explicit <sic>loica</sic> magistri pauli de Venetijs
<!-- MS. Add. C. 145 --> Explicit <choice>  <sic>loica</sic>  <corr>logica</corr> </choice> magistri pauli de Venetijs

The <supplied> element should be used for editorial additions, with the reason attribute (sample values: omitted, illegible, damage, or unknown).

  • supplied (supplied) signifies text supplied by the transcriber or editor for any reason; for example because the original cannot be read due to physical damage, or because of an obvious omission by the author or scribe.
    reason one or more words indicating why the text has had to be supplied, e.g. overbinding, faded-ink, lost-folio, omitted-in-original.
  • ex (editorial expansion) contains a sequence of letters added by an editor or transcriber when expanding an abbreviation.
  • sic (Latin for thus or so) contains text reproduced although apparently incorrect or inaccurate.

Deletions by the scribe or later annotators should be recorded using the <del> element. The rend attribute may be used to indicate the manner of erasure: suggested values include strikethrough (the text has a line through it), erasure (the text has been scraped off), expunction.

  • del (deletion) contains a letter, word, or passage deleted, marked as deleted, or otherwise indicated as superfluous or spurious in the copy text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector.
    rend [att.global.rendition] (rendition) indicates how the element in question was rendered or presented in the source text.

Additions by the scribe or later annotators should be recorded using the <add> element, with the place attribute. The values of the place attribute should be one of the values specified in the EpiDoc guidelines, e.g:

  • above: written above the line
  • below: written below the line
  • top: written in the top margin
  • bottom: written in the top margin
  • margin: written in an unspecified margin
  • unspecified: written in an unspecified location

  • add (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the source text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector.
    place [att.placement] specifies where this item is placed.
Corrections by the scribe or later annotators should be recorded using a combination of the <add> and <del> elements with the <subst> or <mod> element.
<incipit>Theodocius dicit De coniugationibus apud grecos iii sunt coniugationes uerborum qu<subst>   <del>a</del>   <add>o</add>  </subst>rum prima positione</incipit>
Gaps should be marked with <gap> element, using the reason attribute to described the nature of the gap, and the unit attribute, in combination with quantity, and if necessary precision, to specify its extent. This extent should be indicated in characters if possible with the value char on the unit attribute. The atMost, atLeast may be used instead of quantity but these will be rendered as an ellipsis rather than a specific number of dots.
Suggested values for reason
  • damage: text has been omitted due to damage to the manuscript
  • illegible: text has been omitted because it is illegible (but the manuscript is not otherwise damaged)
  • editorial: text (e.g. the formulaic ending of an explicit) has been omitted for brevity
  • space: the gap in the transcription represents space that has been left in the manuscript itself, usually with the intention of text being supplied at a later stage. (Note: do not use this to transcribe initial letters which have been omitted: these should be transcribed using the <supplied> element.
  • lacuna: there is no gap in the text being transcribed, but the text is not complete (e.g. words or lines have been omitted from an exemplar).
<gap quantity="5reason="damage"  unit="char"/>
<gap atLeast="4atMost="6"  reason="illegibleunit="char"/>

Questionable or partly legible readings should be marked with <unclear> (generates a ‘(?)’ after the text in html)

Line beginnings should be indicated with empty <lb> elements, column beginnings with empty <cb> elements

1.3.10. Quotations from the manuscript

Quotations from the manuscript, outside of elements such as <incipit>, <explicit> and so on, should be enclosed in the <q> element. This may have attribute type with sample values:

  • pressmark: the quotation is a pressmark, shelfmark or similar
  • exLibris: the quotation is an ex libris inscription
  • inscription: the quotation is the inscription of a signer or reader

1.3.11. References to other manuscripts

References in the description to other manuscripts should be enclosed in <bibl> tags with type of value MS. The subtype may be used to indicate if the manuscript is held by the same institution that holds the manuscript being catalogued (value interal) or by another institution (value external). In the former case, the shelfmark should not include the location or institution name; in the latter case, location and institution should be included.

The <ref> element may be used to provide a link to an online catalogue or digital fascimile.
Eberbach, Cistercian abbey (?): ‘modern’ chapter numbers added in boxes in the margin, as in <bibl subtype="internaltype="MS">MS. Laud Lat. 107</bibl>.
This scribe was also responsible for most of the Simeon manuscript (<bibl subtype="externaltype="MS">  <ref target="http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Add_MS_22283">London, British Library, Add. MS. 22283</ref> </bibl>) but has not yet been identified in any other manuscripts or documents.

1.5. Subject Classifications

In some catalogues, the fourth button in the header is "Subjects" rather than "Places". This is an index of subject classifications, using the Library of Congress subject heading and name authorities.

<encodingDesc>  <classDecl>   <taxonomy xml:id="LCSH">    <bibl>     <ref target="http://id.loc.gov/authorities/about.html#lcsh">Library of Congress Subject Headings</ref>    </bibl>   </taxonomy>  </classDecl> </encodingDesc> <profileDesc>  <textClass>   <keywords scheme="#LCSH">    <list>     <item>      <term key="subject_sh2008111606">Shafiites--Early works            to 1800</term>     </item>     <item>      <term key="subject_sh85072984">Koran--Recitation</term>     </item>    </list>   </keywords>  </textClass> </profileDesc>

Keywords apply to the manuscript as a whole. You can associate each with one or more specific works by enclosing the <term> in a <ref> whose target attribute is a space-separated list of pointers to the xml:id values of <msItem> elements, prefixed with #.

Each <term> must have a key attribute containing the LoC authority entry identifier prefixed with "subject_". The text within the <term> element is also required, as this is what is displayed on the manuscript's page on the web site. It can be a variant of LoC's preferred term, if you think that more appropriate. If the term hasn't been used before, it will be automatically added to the web site the next time it is re-indexed.

1.6. Manuscript Description

The <sourceDesc> element contains a single child element, the <msDesc>. Within that is all the information about the manuscript as a physical object, its constituent parts, and intellectual works represented within.

All manuscript descriptions must be informed by attention to codicological units. In other words, whether the manuscript was created in one place, over one period of time, or is a composite of parts from multiple sources, assembled at a later date.

If the manuscript forms a single codicological unit, its intellectual content, physical description, and history should be described directly under the <msDesc> element. Individual works can vary in date or hands while still being of a single source. In such cases, add <note> elements to the <msItem> for each work, and an overview for the whole manuscript in <physDesc>, <history>, etc. Do not simply enter information (dates, dimensions, etc) as lists of <ref> elements.

If the manuscript comprises multiple codicological units, each should be described in its own <msPart> element, and only information common to the whole manuscript should be described directly under the <msDesc> element. This will typically include aspects of the physical description (e.g. extent, foliation, binding), aspects of history (notably provenance and acquisition), but possibly also some intellectual content (for example, if a table of contents for the whole volume was added by a later owner, or if the manuscript has replacement leaves). Conversely information relevant to each unit should be described in separate <msPart> elements.

In each case the following elements are used:
<msDesc> <!-- Common information -->  <msPart> <!-- Codicological unit 1 -->  </msPart>  <msPart> <!-- Codicological unit 2 -->  </msPart> </msDesc>

1.6.1. The Manuscript Identifier

Information about the current location and shelfmark of the manuscript should be given in the <msIdentifier> element using the following elements in the following order: <country>, <settlement>, <institution>, <repository>, and <idno> which must have type with value shelfmark.

If the manuscript is well-known by a another name this should be recorded in a <msName> element. Former shelfmarks may be given inside an <altIdentifier> element in an <idno> element (type attribute with value former). If the manuscript has a reference number in another catalogue or reference work, this should be given inside an <altIdentifier> element in an <idno> element. The following values are currently used in the medieval catalogue:
  • SCN - Summary catalogue number
  • TM - identifier in Trismegistos
  • PR - papyrological reference
  • diktyon - Dikyton number
<msIdentifier>  <country>United Kingdom</country>  <region type="county">Oxfordshire</region>  <settlement>Oxford</settlement>  <institution>University of Oxford</institution>  <repository>Bodleian Library</repository>  <idno type="shelfmark">MS. Gr. class. b. 7 (P)</idno>  <altIdentifier type="internal">   <idno type="SCN">36946</idno>  </altIdentifier>  <altIdentifier type="external">   <idno type="PR">P. Oxy. VII 1032</idno>  </altIdentifier>  <altIdentifier type="external">   <idno type="PR">P. Oxy. VII 1049</idno>  </altIdentifier>  <altIdentifier type="external">   <idno type="TM">20328</idno>  </altIdentifier>  <altIdentifier type="external">   <idno type="TM">28329</idno>  </altIdentifier> </msIdentifier>

1.6.2. The Heading

For manuscripts described in detail, and/or containing more than one item, the <head> element should provide (1) a brief descriptive title (2) place of origin if known (3) date of origin. If the latter two are unknown, use the <summary> element within <msContents> instead.
<head>Ovid; England, 12th century</head>

1.6.3. Intellectual Content

The intellectual content of the manuscript or codicological unit should be listed in the <msContents> element.

1.6.3.1. Summary (optional)

The <summary> element can be used to provide a brief prose account of a manuscript's contents and significance, unless this has already been covered by the <head>.

1.6.3.2. Language(s) of the manuscript as a whole (optional)
Give the text language for the codicological unit in the <textLang>element , as a child of <msContents>, immediately after <summary> (if used), with the mainLang attribute.
<textLang mainLang="grc">Greek</textLang>
For bilingual or multilingual units give the other languages in the otherLangs attribute, as a space-separated list.
<textLang mainLang="grcotherLangs="la en">Greek with some Latin and English</textLang>

In some cases the decision of which language is ‘main’ and which is/are ‘other’ may be rather arbitrary.

The attributes values used should conform to the BCP 47 standard (http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/bcp/bcp47.txt) which start with two-or-three-letter ISO 639 codes for languages, then an ISO 15924 code for the script, and finally IANA language subtags (https://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry/language-subtag-registry) for other information, such as methods of transliteration.

If the unit contains multiple works, in different languages or scripts, the <textLang> element should be used in the <msItem> instead, q.v.

According to the conventions of the catalogue, languages may be encoded at a high or low level of granularity - for example, Middle English may be encoded as "enm" or as "en", Anglo-Norman French may be encoded as "fr" or "xno".

1.6.3.3. Manuscript Item

The <msItem> element may be used:

  • To describe an item of intellectual content (including blank leaves if necessary)
  • To provide various notes about the manuscript's contents (e.g. to compare items and their order with the contents of other manuscripts, or to provide a note of content now missing that was formerly present.)

As a general rule, each distinct item in the manuscript should be descibed in a distinct <msItem> tag.

The items should be numbered with the n attribute. (This is particularly useful when the <msItem> element is nested, say to describe sections within works, or works in collections of works.) For retroconversion, follow the numbering system used in the original catalogue. For new cataloguing, use arabic numbers, using a decimal point when <msItem> is nested. For example, for the second section of the first work:
<msItem n="1.2"> <!-- ... --> </msItem>
Just as the n attribute provides a way for readers to reference and locate items, xml:id attributes do the same for computers. So these ideally should be added too:
<msItem n="1.2"  xml:id="Add_1056-item1-item2"> <!-- ... --> </msItem>
Blank pages may be recorded as part of the item they follow, in a separate <note> element. The <locus> element may be used to encode the folio(s).
<note>  <locus from="187vto="187v">Fol. 187v</locus> blank. </note>
More extensive streches of blank pages can be placed in a separate <msItem>.
<msItem>  <locus from="187vto="189v">(fols. 187v-189v)</locus>  <note>Blank.</note> </msItem>

Pages containing short notes or scribbles by later hands should be recorded in the <additions> element, see 1.6.4.7. Additions.

1.6.3.3.1. What is a manuscript item?

The Guidelines offer the following definitions: ‘each discrete item in a manuscript’; ‘an individual work or item within the intellectual content of a manuscript’. Often the identification of these works or items does not pose difficulties, but many more complex cases do occur.

A more helpful definition of a manuscript item may be ‘a complete work or item, or a self-contained part of a larger work with (potentially) independent circulation’. A ‘self-contained part of a larger work’ could be a letter in a letter-collection, or a sermon in a homiliary; it could also represent the biblical text or the commentary in a glossed biblical manuscript.

As a guiding principle, where possible and practicable the <msItem> element should be used to markup up the work as a whole, and its self-contained parts, and the nesting of the different <msItem> elements should express the relationship between part and whole.

However, it is recognised that it may not be practical (for example) to markup every letter in a letter-collection as an <msItem>, and that the contents and order of a collection may simply be recorded in a <note> element.
<author key="person_95147024">Jerome</author> <title key="work_2426">112 letters</title> <note>  <title>Epist.</title> 57 (38), 73 (44), 129 (57), 35 (1), 36 (2; as 3 items, dividing in sects. 10-15), 62 (3), 19 (4), 20 (5), 15 (6), 16 (7), 18B (8), 18A (9), 21 (10), 14 (37), 52 (33), 58 (34), 55 (?), 83-4 (39-40), <!-- etc. --> </note>

Difficulties are posed by:

  • texts which circulate with shorter related texts, for example Augustine’s De Trinitate, preceded in Merton College MS. 32 by the relevant extract from Retractationes and by Ep. 74.
  • texts followed or preceded by indexes (e.g. Merton College MS. 34, Augustine on the Psalms followed (fols. 385-412v) by a subject index.
  • brief items not catalogued in detail or not considered worth cataloguing in full, e.g. Merton College MS. 13 art. 6, Prouerbia Wiponis ‘followed by brief theological notes’. Merton College MS. 13, art. 22, Prosper, Responsiones, ‘Followed by ‘Quot secte Iudeorum. Quot fuerunt secte Iudeorum qui fuerunt separati a communi uita ...’, and extracts from Augustine, Jerome and Ambrose ff. 116v-17v.’

Recommended best practice is to catalogue and encode so that each item mentioned is discoverable. This can be achieved in different ways according to the information available. Suggested encodings for the above examples are:

<msItem>  <author key="person_66806872">AUGUSTINE</author>  <title key="work_784">De Trinitate</title>  <note>Preceded by the relevant extract from <title key="work_804">Retract.</title> and the <title key="work_801">Epistola ad Aurelium (Epist.      74).</title>  </note> </msItem>
<msItem>  <locus>(fols. 1-384v)</locus>  <author key="person_66806872">AUGUSTINE</author>  <title key="work_790">Enarrationes in Psalmos    77-148</title>  <rubric>Incipit tractatus de psalmo septuagesimo    septimo</rubric>  <incipit>Psalmus iste ea continet quem ueteri populo    diuinitus acta narrantur</incipit>  <explicit>(<note>ends impf. in Ps. 148: 17;      catchwords)</note> Cantus est cum laude    Dei</explicit>  <note>   <title>CPL</title> 283; <title>CCSL</title> 39-40    (2<hi rend="superscript">nd</hi> edn., 1990), p.    1066 – 40, p. 2176 line 39.</note> </msItem> <msItem>  <locus>(fols. 385-412v)</locus>  <msItem n="a">   <title type="desc">An index in 4 cols of first      verses of each Psalm</title>  </msItem>  <msItem n="b">   <title type="desc">Subject-index, ‘<hi rend="italic">Abissus</hi><hi rend="italic">Zelus</hi></title>   <incipit>Abissus dicuntur in profundo      peccati</incipit>   <note>f. 413rv blank</note>  </msItem> </msItem>
1.6.3.3.2.

For sample encodings of liturgical books (a Book of Hours) and a Bible, see the Appendix.

1.6.3.3.3. Texts with gloss and commentary

Treatment of these texts will vary according to the arrangement of text, gloss, and commentary; whether gloss and commentary are continuous; whether gloss and commentary are contemporary or later, and whether they form an integral part of the mise-en-page; whether there are multiple layers of gloss / commentary. Examples:

<!-- MS. Junius 27 --><msItem>  <note>Psalter with Old English gloss</note>  <msItem>   <title>Psalms (Roman version)</title>   <note>Beginning imperfectly at 2.4 and ending at      144.6</note>   <incipit defective="true">Qui habitat in      caelis</incipit>   <explicit defective="true">terribiliorum tuorum      dicent</explicit>  </msItem>  <msItem>   <title type="desc">Continuous interlinear gloss in      Old English</title>   <incipit>se eardað in heofonum</incipit>   <explicit>þinra eyes fulnessa cweoðað</explicit>  </msItem> </msItem>
<!-- Christ Church MS. 95 --><msItem>  <locus> Fols 1-161<hi rend="superscript">v</hi>  </locus>  <title key="work_13747type="desc">Pauline Epistles,    with gloss </title>  <msItem>   <incipit type="text">Pavlvs seruus ihesu cristi      uocatus apostolus segregatus</incipit>  </msItem>  <msItem>   <note>Interlinear gloss:</note>   <incipit>Saluatoris Regis sacerdotis cui merito      omnes serui predicandum</incipit>  </msItem>  <msItem>   <note>Marginal gloss:</note>   <incipit>Pro altercatione scribit apostolus Romanis      confutans modo gentiles</incipit>  </msItem> <!-- ... --> </msItem>
1.6.3.3.4. Relating manuscript items to quires
Some catalogues/cataloguers indicate the relationship between each item and the quires of the codex. This may be encoded as follows:
<msItem>  <note>Items 2-3 occupy quires 3-4.</note> </msItem>
1.6.3.3.5. Extracts and parts of works
If only an extract of a work is present this should be encoded using the <bibl> element. Within this, the <citedRange> element may be used to provide a machine-reading encoding of which parts of the work are given.
<author key="person_59077661">Thomas à Kempis</author> <title key="work_4859">Imitatio Christi</title> <bibl>(book <citedRange from="1to="1unit="book">i</citedRange>)</bibl>
1.6.3.3.6. General notes on the content
These may be placed at the beginning or end of the <msContents> section in a separate <msItem> element.
<msItem>  <note>Items (a)-(i), (j), (k) are in Vienna,    Nationalbibl. MS. 415 in the same order.</note> </msItem>
1.6.3.3.7. Added texts

Significant added texts should be described in <msContents>, NOT in <additions>. Decision as to what is ‘significant’ will be a matter of judgement, but in general if the text is to be discoverable - if it is important for the text to be identified or described, or to have its rubrics / incipits recorded, etc. - it should be encoded using <msItem>. This may involve some reorganization of the description during retroconversion.

Two possible approaches are described here. Each may be appropriate in different circumstances, dependent for example on the nature of the manuscript and/or the nature of the description being converted:

  • describe every <msItem> in sequence, using <note> to indicate if it is a later addition
  • Group added texts together in a separate section at the end of <msContents>, preceded by
    <msItem>  <note>Added texts:</note> <!-- added texts here --> </msItem>
<!-- Christ Church MS. 105 --><msItem>  <note>Added texts:</note>  <msItem n="a">   <locus>Fol. 164<hi rend="superscript">v</hi>   </locus>   <title key="work_10687type="desc">Calendar</title> <!-- ... -->  </msItem>  <msItem n="b">   <locusGrp>    <locus from="356rbto="356vb">Fols 356<hi rend="superscript">rb-vb</hi>,</locus>    <locus from="374rato="374rb">374<hi rend="superscript">rab</hi>    </locus>   </locusGrp>   <incipit>heremita yu semest a fela <gap quantity="6unit="chars"/>    <lb/>    <gap quantity="18unit="chars"/> was he<gap quantity="2unit="chars"/>    <lb/> but yu wit me al ny3t</incipit>   <incipit>    <locus>[fol. 374<hi rend="superscript">ra</hi>]</locus> And you seeme welle...</incipit>   <incipit>    <locus>[fol. 374<hi rend="superscript">rb</hi>]</locus> So help me lorde Jesu</incipit>   <explicit>    <gap quantity="13unit="chars"/>d ye <gap quantity="2unit="chars"/>y<gap quantity="1unit="chars"/> prince <lb/> For yis work as tu      worth</explicit>   <title key="work_12461">The King and the      Hermit</title>   <note> A version of ‘The king and the hermit’ (IMEV      1764; DIMEV 2918), ed. W. Carew Hazlitt,   <title>Remains of the Early Popular Poetry of        England</title>, 4 vols (London, 1864-66), 1:12-34      and, most recently, George Shuffleton,   <title>Ashmole 61: A Compilation of Popular Middle        English Verse</title> (Kalamazoo, MI, 2008),      401-13, 590-6, 627-8 (with our copy opening with a      version of l. 285). Here presented as if a      dramatic dialogue, apparently extending beyond the      fragmentary conclusion of the sole previously      available witness, BodL, MS Ashmole 61, from which      it also widely diverges. Written in on blank      leaves in plummet, partially washed and much      faded, in anglicana, s. xiv<hi rend="superscript">ex</hi>. The incipit above corresponds to line      291 of the printed text (24); the text may begin      on the virtually illegible fol. 374.</note>  </msItem>  <msItem n="c">   <locus>Fols 372<hi rend="superscript">ra</hi>-73<hi rend="superscript">vb</hi>   </locus>   <incipit defective="true"> an sit agend’ indic’      officio ut notatur Capitulo de edis      do<ex>m</ex>ini</incipit>   <explicit defective="true">clericus non intellegitur      quod ad hoc potenter laico nec cedens euattura      racione afficitur</explicit>   <title key="work_14189type="desc">Questions in      canon law (?)</title>   <note>Apparently questions in canon law, incomplete      at both ends. In double columns, each column 255      mm x 80-85 mm, with 12 mm between columns, in      about 64 lines to the column. Written in academic      gothic textura quadrata, s. xiv med.</note>  </msItem>  <msItem n="d">   <locus>Fol. 374</locus>   <note>The opening of a list of the readings      (epistle, lesson, gospel) for Sundays and      feastdays; in gothic textura quadrata, s.      xiii/xiv.</note>  </msItem> </msItem>
1.6.3.3.8. Locus
Give the start and end folio of each item according to the guidelines specified in 1.3.2. References to Locations within a Manuscript. If there are several items on a single folio, you may specify on which line the text starts and ends. For texts scattered over more than one location in the manuscript the <locusGrp> element should be used.
<locusGrp>  <locus from="356rbto="356vb">Fols 356<hi rend="superscript">rb-vb</hi>,</locus>  <locus from="374rato="374rb">374<hi rend="superscript">rab</hi>  </locus> </locusGrp>
1.6.3.3.9. Author
The author of a manuscript item, if known, should be recorded inside the <author> element. This MUST have a reference, using the key attribute, to the persons authority file, see 1.3.3. Personal Names. The <author> element should be omitted for anonymous works.
<author key="person_66806872">Augustine</author>

The author name should be given in a standardized form. For retroconversion, use the form of the name given in the source text; for new cataloguing, use a standard form from the usual reference works.

If you are not responsible for maintaining the authority files, go to the web site, click the People button, and search to see if the same person already exists in another manuscript in the same catalogue, with the same or similar (or translated) name. If they have, set the key attribute to the identifier of the existing record, which is the part of the URL after the last slash, starting with "person_". If you can find the person by searching in VIAF (http://viaf.org/) set the value to "person_" followed by their VIAF number. Otherwise, leave the key attribute blank and an identifier will be assigned to it at a later date.

Where an author has multiple names (e.g. translations or transliterations) add these as child <persName> elements (with xml:lang attributes). Do not use <foreign> in this context. But the key attribute remains on the <author> element. Multiple <author> elements should be used for works with multiple authors (not other contributors, such as scribes, these should be added as <editor> elements with role attributes.)

(Optional) Either <author> or <persName> elements can contain <surname>, <forename> and <addName> child elements to divide up the full name as appropriate to naming customs (<addName> has a type attribute in which you can specify "laqab", "kunyah", "khitab", "nisbah”", etc.)

(Optional) To indicate that an author's name is not present in the MS., use <supplied>.
<author key="person_66806872">  <supplied>Augustine</supplied> </author>
1.6.3.3.9.1. Pseudonymous, multiple, uncertain, disputed and attributed authorship
Texts which circulated consistently but incorrectly under the name of an author, but whose true author is not known, are by convention attributed to Pseudo-Augustine, Pseudo-Ambrose, etc., and these conventional attributions should be followed.
<author key="person_7386286">Ps.-Augustine</author> <title key="work_3881">De Vera et Falsa Poenitentia</title>
Texts which circulated consistently but incorrectly under the name of an author, but whose true author IS now known or suspected, should be catalogued under the author which modern scholarship prefers. In some cases, where the association with other authors is strong, it will be useful to give these in addition.
<author key="person_79148266">Haimo of Auxerre (Ps.-Haimo of Halberstadt, Ps.-Cassiodorus)</author> <title key="work_1946">Commentary on the Song of Songs</title>
Note that the pseudonymous authors do not have their own <author> element (these may be given in the authority file: q.v.).
Where the attribution of a text in the manuscript differs from the attribution of modern scholarship, this can be recorded either in a <note> element or by relevant markup in the <rubric> element. Use the <persName> element with attribute role of value att (= ‘attributed name’)
<author key="person_84971682">Ivo of Chartres</author> <title>Epistola ad Seuerinum</title> <rubric>Incipit liber <persName key="person_100187025"   role="att">Anselmi</persName> de caritate</rubric>
<author key="person_209749583">  <supplied>Ps.-Bede</supplied> </author> <title key="work_6131">  <supplied>Commentary on    John</supplied> </title> <note>Cap. 3. Here ascribed to <persName key="person_66806872role="att">Augustine</persName>.</note>
Multiple authors can be indicated using repeated <author> elements.
<msItem n="1xml:id="MS_Douce_332-item1">  <author key="person_95220054">Guillaume de    Lorris</author>  <author key="person_304922354">Jean de    Meung</author>  <title key="work_1919">Le Roman de la Rose</title>  <textLang mainLang="fr">French</textLang> </msItem>
Uncertainly regarding authorship can be indicated using the cert attribute. Following the usage of Richard Sharpe, ‘attrib.’ can be used for modern scholarly attributions of authorship; ‘ascr.’ denotes ascriptions in manuscripts; and ‘(?)’ denotes broader uncertainty.
<author cert="mediumkey="person_2205">Roger of Caen (attrib.) (Ps.-Alexander Nequam)</author> <title key="work_4455">De professione monachorum</title>
1.6.3.3.10. Editor / translator / etc.

For secondary statements of responsibility, use the <editor> element, distinguished with a role attribute containing a three-letter code (or multiple codes separated by spaces) selected from the MARC relators list (https://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/relaterm.html). Do not add a label for their role, as this will be added when displayed on the web site. For example, for a translator:

<editor key="person_5150639role="trl">  <persName>Abū al-Faz̤l ibn Mubārak, 1551-1602</persName>  <persName xml:lang="fa">ابو الفضل بن مبارك علامی</persName> </editor>

In all other respects, <editor> elements can contain the same child elements as <author> (eg. multiple <persName> elements) and attributes (e.g. a key linking them to an entry in the persons authority file, so that they are indexed on the web site.) Further details about their role in the creation of the work can be explained in a separate <note>.

Alternatively (this is current practice in the medieval catalogue) information about translators, etc., may be provided in the <note> element as follows:
<author key="person_95155322"> Origen </author> <title key="work_3395">Homilies on Joshua</title> <note>(Latin tr. by <persName key="person_77679446role="trl">Rufinus</persName>)</note>
1.6.3.3.11. Title

The title element provides a standarized uniform title or a descriptive title for a manuscript item.

For retroconversion, use the form of the title given in the source catalogue (if one is given); for new cataloguing (or if the converted catalogue does not supply a title), use a standard form from the usual reference works; if a standard form cannot be found, one should be supplied by the cataloguer. By default titles are displayed in italic font.

If the title is descriptive, the type attribute should then be set with the value desc. This will display the title in normal font. Alternative titles should be give a type of alt, and main and sub can be used if there is a subtitle.

When providing translations of the title, or multiple versions in different scripts or forms of transliteration, add them as sibling <title> elements, each with an xml:lang attribute. Do not use <foreign> except to mark up a word or phrase within a title as being in a different language to the rest of the title.

Works which are to be indexed (i.e. you consider significant enough to be listed under the Works button on the web site) MUST have a reference using the key attribute to the works authority file
<title key="work_15602type="desc">Commentary on Apocalypse</title>

If you are not responsible for maintaining the authority files, go to the web site, click the Works button, and search to see if the same work already exists in another manuscript in the same catalogue, with the same or similar (or translated) title. If it has, set the key attribute in the <title> element(s) to the identifier of the existing record, which is the part of the URL after the last slash, starting with "work_". Otherwise, leave the key attribute blank and an identifier will be assigned to it at a later date.

(optional) to indicate the title is not given in the manuscript, use the <supplied> element.
<author key="person_89657091">  <supplied>Bonaventure</supplied> </author> <title key="work_1144">  <supplied>Legenda    maior</supplied> </title>
1.6.3.3.12. Rubrics, incipits, explicits, final rubrics, and colophons.

Retroconversion: include these items if they are given. New cataloguing: include these items for all texts. The absence of a rubric need not be noted, although it can be included in a <note> if it is significant (e.g. all other texts do have rubrics).

Follow the principles of transcription outlined above 1.3.9. Transcription to transcribe the MS. or to encode the text given in an existing catalogue.

It is assumed that the language of incipits, etc., is the same as the language specified in <textLang>. It is not necessary to use xml:lang to specify the language of the incipit (etc.), unless multiple languages are involved (e.g. <msItem> with <rubric> in French but <incipit> in Latin).
<msItem xml:id="MS_Buchanan_e_13-item1-item5-item1">  <locus>(fols.18r-21v)</locus>  <rubric xml:lang="fr">Oraison tres deuote de nostre    dame</rubric>  <incipit xml:lang="la">Obsecro te</incipit>  <note>[masculine forms] (cf. MS. Buchanan e. 2)</note> </msItem>

For mutilated items the attribute defective should be used with value true.

The formatting of the rubric can be recorded in the rend attribute (see 1.3.7. Formatting). Comments on the rubric (e.g. if it is a later addition) can be recorded using a <note> tag inside the <rubric> tag.
<msItem n="6xml:id="MS_Ashmole_304-item6">  <locus from="64rto="70v">(fols. 64r-70v)</locus>  <title key="work_16047">Divinacio    ciceronalis</title>  <note>(incomplete)</note>  <note>See A. A. Guardo, 'La <foreign rend="italic">Divinacio Ciceronalis</foreign>: un libro de    suertes medieval. Estudio introductorio', in  <title>De lo humano y lo divino en la literatura      medieval: santos, ángeles y demonios</title>, ed.    Juan Paredes Núñez (2012), 17-34.</note>  <note>The surviving section in this MS. comprises the    responses, fourteen (of originally 20) sections of    21 lines, the first line of each in red, each    section attributed to sun, moon, a planet or a sign    of the zodiac (Guardo's section 4). The text in MS.    Digby 46 has in addition a miniature of Cicero,    twenty prognostical questions, and directions for    use (see Guardo).</note>  <rubric>Sol iudex primus</rubric>  <incipit defective="true">   <note>(first line in      red)</note> Mittam te ad amicum meum et dicet tibi    uerum Certe tibi dico prope est ut gaudeas et mutes    fortunam</incipit> </msItem>
Note that TEI distinguishes between the <finalRubric>, which contains a statement relating to the end of a particular work (e.g. ‘explicit liber’), and the <colophon>, which contains a statement about the scribe and/or date and/or place of writing (‘scriptum apud Oxon.’). If the final rubric and colophon form a single sentence, put both inside <finalRubric> with type attribute of value colophon. (The <colophon> element cannot have the type attribute.)
<finalRubric type="colophon">Expliciunt omelie Iohannis Crisostomi patriarche Constantinopolitanis super Matheum operis imperfecti scripte anno Domini 1382</finalRubric>
Multiple incipits, rubrics, etc., e.g. for prologues, dedications, text, should be distinguished using type (and if necessary by location, by including a child <locus> element at the start of each one). Suggested values of the type attribute are prologue (use for preface, prohemium, etc), dedication, text
<msItem>  <locus from="12vto="12v">(fol. 12v)</locus>  <author key="person_11566602">Garland</author>  <title key="work_1724type="desc">Compotus</title>  <incipit type="prologue">Sepe uolumina domni    Bede</incipit>  <incipit type="text">Superioris igitur pagine</incipit> </msItem>
Use of the type attribute will not always be possible in retroversion if the catalogue does not provide the information. In this case a series of the relevant elements without type should be used.
<!-- Merton College MS. 20 --><msItem n="1">  <locus from="1rto="14v">(fols. 1-14v)</locus>  <author key="person_100187025">Anselm</author>  <title key="work_537">Monologion</title>  <rubric>Incipit epistola Anselmi archiepiscopi ad    Lanfrancum primatem Anglie</rubric>  <incipit>Reuerendo et amando suo domino</incipit>  <rubric>Incipit prohemium beati Anselmi archiepiscopi in    monologion R.</rubric>  <incipit>Quidam fratres sepe me studioseque</incipit>  <note>(<foreign rend="italic">capitula</foreign>)</note>  <incipit>Si quis unam naturam summam omnique que    sunt</incipit>  <explicit>Deus ineffabilis trinus et unus</explicit>  <finalRubric>Finitur monologion Anselmi.    Explicit.</finalRubric>  <bibl>   <title>SAO</title> 1. 13-87.</bibl> </msItem>

The <rubric>, <incipit>, etc. elements should not have final punctuation, unless they contain more than one sentence, in which case there should be a closing period.

1.6.3.3.12.1. Complex incipits

The <incipit> elements in a catalogue may be processed to generate an alphabetical list of incipits similar to those in a print catalogue.

For long and complex incipits, care should be taken to mark up the content in a way that enables multiple index entries to be generated to aid discovery.

Incipits containing an initial address should be divided into two <incipit> elements, the first containing the address and the second the incipit itself.
<author key="person_47155211">PETER OF WALTHAM</author> <title key="work_3545">Remediarium Conuersorum</title> <incipit>Reuerendo patri Ricardo ecclesie Londoniensi episcopo tercio suus Petrus Blesensis archidiaconus eiusdem ecclesie sic currere per temporalia ut brauium apprehendat eternum</incipit> <incipit>De beata mentis solitudine necnon et euangelice paupertatis beatitudine </incipit>
Incipits of sermons often begin with a biblical lemma, and in a printed catalogue would be indexed both under the lemma and under the incipit. These should be marked up using the <cit>, <quote>, and <bibl> elements as follows.
<incipit>  <cit>   <quote rend="italic">Qui mihi ministrat me      sequitur.</quote>   <bibl>Io. 15.</bibl>  </cit> In his uerbis notantur duo; primum est Christo debita administracio </incipit>
If the source is not given, the <quote> element only may be used.
<incipit>  <quote rend="italic">   <supplied>V</supplied>erbo    Domini celi firmati sunt</quote> &amp;c. Tria in hiis uerbis sunt notari primum omnium sacre scripture dignitas </incipit>
Where a brief lemma would not typically be indexed separately (e.g. in a glossary or commentary), but would be considered an integral part of the incipit, the lemma may only be distinguished typographically.
<incipit>  <hi rend="italic">Abba</hi> secundum Papiam Syrum nomen est </incipit>
1.6.3.3.13. Note, bibliography and additional information
Additional information about the text - for example whether or not the text is complete; whether or not the text is glossed or annotated; other copies of the text; references to repertories and editions - can be presented in various ways. It may be convenient in retroconversion to include this information in a single <note> element. Equally some of this information may be encoded more appropriately using other elements, such as <bibl> or <filiation>. Compare:
<msItem n="3">  <locus>(fols 54r-73r)</locus>  <author key="person_196789494">   <supplied>Ps.</supplied>    Athanasios</author>  <title key="work_5884">Disputatio contra Arium</title>  <note>CPG 2250, PG 28.440-501.</note> </msItem>
<msItem n="3">  <locus>(fols 54r-73r)</locus>  <author key="person_196789494">   <supplied>Ps.</supplied>    Athanasios</author>  <title key="work_5884">Disputatio contra Arium</title>  <listBibl>   <bibl>CPG 2250</bibl>   <bibl>PG 28, 440-501</bibl>  </listBibl> </msItem>
The <filiation> element provides information about the relationship of the manuscript with other surviving manuscripts in terms of their content. For example:
<msItem n="2">  <title xml:lang="ara-Latn-x-lc">Khulāṣat al-ikhtiṣāṣ fī    maʻrifat al-quwá wa-al-khawāṣṣ</title>  <filiation>There is another manuscript of this work at    the Birmingham University, Mingana Collection,    Islamic Arabic Ms. no. 933 (1485)</filiation> </msItem>
A <bibl> containing a <ref> element can be used to link to external resources related to a work, such as printed catalogue pages.
<listBibl>  <bibl>   <ref target="http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/arabic_catalogues/browne/view.php? id=76">no. 673</ref>  </bibl> </listBibl>
Do not use this method to link to digitized copies, use <surrogates> instead.

1.6.4. Physical description

The physical description includes serveral different aspects of the manuscript (or part of a manuscript) including:

  • aspects of the form, support, extent, and quire structure of the manuscript object and of the way in which the text is laid out on the page.
  • the style of writing used and discussion of any decorative features, any musical notation employed, and of any annotations or marginalia.
  • discussion of binding, seals, and any accompanying material.
1.6.4.1. secundo folio

Provide a transcription of the words found at the beginning of the recto side of the second leaf of the manuscript. These were often used in medieval book-lists or inventories and may sometimes be useful for identification of provenance – or simply for modern-day identification.

This information is placed inside the <secFol> element, inside a <p> element, directly after <physDesc>

If the manuscript begins imperfectly – for instance, if the first leaf of text is missing – provide both the original and the present-day secundo folio, in order to avoid any ambiguity.

If the manuscript begins with prefatory paratextual matter, such as an index, you should record the secundo folio in both this and the main text. Use <locus> to record the location of each.

If the secundo folio begins mid-word, the missing portion may be provided inside a <supplied> element

<!-- MS. Buchanan e. 10 --><physDesc>  <p>   <secFol>    <locus from="3rto="3r">(Calendar, fol. 3)</locus>      KL Feurier a</secFol>   <secFol>    <locus from="15rto="15r">(text, fol. 15)</locus>      venientem in</secFol>  </p> </physDesc>
1.6.4.2. Object Description
The physical form of the carrier should be set in the form attribute of the <objectDesc> element. This should refer to the form of the object in its original state, before any mutilation, rebinding etc. The following values are recommended:
  • codex: multiple gatherings of leaves, held within a binding of some kind, and used by turning the leaves.
  • roll: a parchment membrane, or two or more such membranes, either sewn together edge-to-edge to form a continuous surface for writing, or laid together in a pile and sewn together at the head, and used by unrolling the membranes.
  • sheet: a single sheet of parchment or paper, not intended to form part of a codex, either kept flat or folded (rather than rolled) for storage.
  • faltbuch
  • other
  • unknown
The following may also be used:
  • roll-codex
  • booklet: a gathering of two or more bifolia, with a binding/covering, that appears to be complete in terms of its original textual content
  • quire: a complete gathering of two or more bifolia, without a binding/covering.
<physDesc>  <objectDesc form="codex"> <!-- -->  </objectDesc> </physDesc>
1.6.4.2.1. Support Description

The <supportDesc> element may contain the following elements:

  • support (support) contains a description of the materials etc. which make up the physical support for the written part of a manuscript or other object.
  • extent (extent) describes the approximate size of a text stored on some carrier medium or of some other object, digital or non-digital, specified in any convenient units.
  • foliation (foliation) describes the numbering system or systems used to count the leaves or pages in a codex or similar object.
  • collation (collation) contains a description of how the leaves, bifolia, or similar objects are physically arranged.
  • condition (condition) contains a description of the physical condition of the manuscript or object.

The support material for the codicological unit(s) should be recorded in the material attribute of <supportDesc>. Allowed values are: chart (for all kinds of paper), perg (for parchment and vellum), papyrus, palm (palm leaf), mixed, unknown, or other. The name of the material for display purposes, and further description of the support, should be added in the <support> element. For example:

<supportDesc material="chart">  <support>Paper</support> </supportDesc>
<supportDesc material="perg">  <support>Exceptionally thick, stiff parchment</support> </supportDesc>
1.6.4.2.1.1. Support
Provides a prose description of the material. For parchment, this may include comment on the quality of the parchment and its disposition. For mixed material, the nature of the combination should be described.
<support>Paper, with parchment bifolia for the outer and inner leaves of the quire.</support>
If the disposition of hair and flesh sides of parchment is recorded, this should be done consistently using the letters H (for hair) and F (for flesh) inside a <term> element with attribute type of value disposition. If the disposition is consistent throughout the manuscript, the formula need only refer to each side of the first two leaves in a quire. For example, HFFH indicates that the hair side is on the outside of the quire, with flesh sides facing flesh sides and hair sides facing hair sides in the rest of the quire (and vice versa). By contrast, FHFH indicates that the flesh side is on the outside of the quire, with hair sides facing flesh sides and flesh sides facing hair sides in the rest of the quire (and vice versa). For irregularly arranged quires, we recommend the provision of a full formula. If the disposition varies between portions of a composite manuscript, use <msPart> to provide separate formulae. Formulae such as 'HSOS' (hair side outside) should be altered in retroconversion. If the disposition of parchment varies between quires or otherwise between sections of the manuscript, it should be described in the <layout> element, rather than in <support>.
<support>Parchment (<term type="disposition">FHHF</term>)</support> <support>Parchment (<term type="disposition">HFHF</term>)</support>

Note that this convention regarding H and F differs from the usage attributed to Julian Brown, in which our HFFH would be rendered HHHH, the H in the latter case describing the recto of each leaf in the first half of the quire. If retroconverting, ensure that you have understood the original intention of the cataloguer.

If different materials are used (paper and parchment, different kinds of parchment, or different paper stocks, for example), these may be described in separate <material> elements.

1.6.4.2.1.1.1. Description of paper

The level of detail in which paper is described will vary: in retroconversion, according to the detail of existing descriptions; in cataloguing afresh, according to the resources available

The paper should be described inside the <support> element. If there are multiple paper stocks, each should be described in its own <material> element.

The folding of the paper should be recorded using a <measure> element with the type attribute (value: folding) and quantity attribute whose values will be folio, quarto, etc.

The original size of the sheet may be given using <dimensions> with attribute type of value paperSheet

The number of chainlines per leaf should be recorded using a <measure> element with type of value chainlinesLeaf and an appropriate value of quantity.

The distance between chainlines may be recorded using <dimensions> with type of chainLines, containing a <width> element with quantity.

1.6.4.2.1.1.1.1. Watermarks

Describe each watermark in the <watermark> element.

The key term for the motif should be encoded using the <term> element with attribute type of value watermarkMotif and attribute key with the relevant value from the IPH standard. Additional descriptive terms may be placed inside a <note> element with type of watermarkVariation

The position of the watermark should be recorded in a <note> element with type of watermarkPosition

The dimensions of the watermark may be given in a <dimensions> element with type of watermark.

References to printed repertories may be given in the format specified above at Repertories. References to online repertories may be given using the <ref> element.

Countermarks should be described using the <countermark> element. Note that this customization is not currently part of the TEI P5 standard.

1.6.4.2.1.1.1.2. Examples:
<watermark>  <term key="J3/3type="watermarkMotif">Monts/Dreiberg</term> </watermark>
<support>  <material>   <locus from="1rto="48v">Fols. 1-48</locus>,    paper, folded in <measure>quarto</measure>; <num type="chainlinesLeaf">8</num> chainlines per leaf.  <watermark>Watermark: <term type="watermarkMotif">Hand</term>, <note type="variation">surmounted by        a fleuron</note>, <note type="position">on a        chainline</note>. </watermark>  </material> </support>
<support>  <material>   <locus from="1rto="48v">1-48</locus>, paper,    folded in <measure>quarto</measure>, <note type="paperType">chancery</note>; original size of    the sheet <dimensions type="sheetunit="mm">    <height>315</height>    <width>425</width>   </dimensions> Chainlines: <num type="chainlinesLeaf">8</num> chainlines per leaf,  <num type="chainlinesSheet">23</num> chainlines    per sheet. <dimensions type="chainlinesunit="mm">    <width>19</width>   </dimensions> mm. between    chainlines. <watermark>Watermark: <term type="watermarkMotif">Hand</term>, <note type="watermarkVariation">surmounted by a        fleuron</note>, <note type="watermarkPosition">on        a chainline</note> (<ref target="http://www.ksbm.oeaw.ac.at/_scripts/php/loadRepWmark.php?rep=briquet&amp;refnr=10713&amp;lang=fr">Briquet 10713</ref>)</watermark>  </material>  <material>   <locus from="49rto="72v">49-72</locus>, paper,    folded in <measure>folio</measure>, <note type="paperType">chancery</note>; original size of    the sheet <dimensions type="paperSheetunit="mm">    <height>290</height>    <width>420</width>   </dimensions>. Chainlines: <num type="chainlinesLeaf">6</num> chainlines per leaf,  <num type="chainlinesSheet">12</num> chainlines    per sheet. <dimensions type="chainlinesunit="mm">    <width>33</width>   </dimensions> mm. between    chainlines. <watermark>Watermark: <term type="watermarkMotif">Bird</term>, <note type="watermarkVariation">with a cross surmounted        with trefoils</note>, <note type="watermarkPosition">between chainlines</note>      (<ref target="http://www.ksbm.oeaw.ac.at/_scripts/php/loadRepWmark.php?amp;rep=briquet&amp;refnr=12170&amp;lang=fr">Briquet 12170</ref>) <dimensions type="watermarkunit="mm">     <height>41</height>     <width>19</width>    </dimensions>   </watermark>  </material> </support>
1.6.4.2.1.2. Extent

This should contain:

<seg> and type may be used to separate these sections within extent, as shown below.

If the present state of the item is different from its original state, record this information within <objectType>, using the following terms:

  • roll-codex = a codex in which formerly joined membranes have been separated and rebound to resemble a codex, perhaps in concertina form
  • fragment = one or more remnants from a manuscript, whose survival in a form different to their original state has been accidental or an unintended consequence of their use for some other purpose not directly concerned with their original content or history (e.g. as pastedowns or sewing guards).
  • cutting = a single portion of a leaf, whose removal was guided by aesthetic or other criteria of selection, with the intention of preserving it separately from the rest of the manuscript.

Where necessary (particularly in the case of fragments), further brief description may be provided after the closing <objectType> tag, using the following terms:

  • quire = a complete gathering of two or more bifolia, without a binding/covering.
  • bifolium = two conjoint (but not necessarily contiguous) leaves, originally or still folded vertically down the middle, perhaps removed or otherwise detached from a codex.
  • leaf = a single leaf
<extent>  <seg type="object">   <objectType>Fragment</objectType>, comprising two    originally contiguous strips of parchment, removed    from a binding. </seg> [...] </extent>
1.6.4.2.1.2.1. Number of leaves

The number of leaves within a manuscript has generally been expressed using a formula that separates endleaves from the leaves at the ‘core’ of the volume (formed by gatherings of leaves whose structure can be determined in <collation>). E.g. ii + 320 + ii (i.e. a medieval manuscript opening with two post-medieval endleaves, then 320 medieval leaves, and closing with two post-medieval endleaves).

Sometimes, a formula might distinguish between different kinds of endleaf. Example: ii + 1 + 320 + ii (i.e. a medieval manuscript opening with two post-medieval endleaves, a single medieval leaf, then 320 medieval leaves, and closing with two post-medieval endleaves).

It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish whether such leaves as that denoted by ‘+ 1’ in the above formula are original (i.e. were included in the manuscript when it was first made), contemporary (i.e. included around that time), or were added at some later juncture as part of a rebinding during the medieval period. In any case, they are not part of the quire structure.

Since this kind of endleaf may contain (for example) annotations, added texts, or information of relevance to the manuscript’s medieval provenance, or may comprise leaves recycled from another medieval manuscript (and therefore bearing text in need of identification), the current guide recommends that these endleaves be distinguished both from others that were clearly added later and from the ‘core’ leaves in a volume.

Use <measure> to encode each group of leaves separately, with the attribute value to provide the number of leaves within that group.

Use the following conventions:

  • lower-case Roman numerals to refer to endleaves that were not part of the original manuscript and are demonstrably not medieval, type=laterEndleaf
  • Arabic numerals to refer to endleaves that are either original / contemporary / medieval, encoded as type=endleaf
  • Arabic numerals to refer to leaves that are the ‘core’ of the volume, encoded as: type=leaf. (If the volume is paginated, use type=page.)
  • for rolls: Arabic numerals to refer to the number of membranes, encoded as: type=membrane

The terms ‘medieval’ and ‘post-medieval’ have been avoided in order that it might be possible to apply the same vocabulary and encoding practice to the task of cataloguing early modern manuscripts.

<extent> [...] <seg type="leaf">   <measure quantity="2type="laterEndleaf">ii</measure> + <measure quantity="1type="endleaf">1</measure> + <measure quantity="320type="leaf">320</measure> + <measure quantity="2type="laterEndleaf">ii</measure>  </seg> </extent>
N.B. Note for retroconversion: catalogues do not always make it possible to distinguish endleaves from leaves. In particular, the Bodleian’s Summary Catalogue uses formulae such as “ii + 73”, where the front endleaves are enumerated (but modern / original leaves are not distinguished), but any rear endleaves are included in with the main block. In such cases mark up as follows:
<extent>  <num type="endleafvalue="2">ii</num> + <num type="leafvalue="73">73</num> </extent>
1.6.4.2.1.3. Leaf dimensions

Use the tag <dimensions> to encode measurements of the leaves and the attribute type to indicate what is being measured. The following values of type may be used:

  • leaf = one or more leaves
  • roll = the total dimensions of a series of sheets stitched together
  • membrane = a single sheet within a roll
  • fragment = a remnant of a manuscript (potentially of various kinds and not necessarily in its original form)
  • cutting = a single portion of a leaf, removed from a manuscript

Round measurements to the nearest 5mm - except for single-sheet documents or fragments.

Use the attribute unit to specify the measurement system. Dimensions should be measured in mm. when cataloguing afresh. For retroconversion, follow whichever system the catalogue has used. Suggested values of unit:

  • mm
  • cm
  • inch

The quantity attribute should be used to provide a machine-readable form of the measurement.

For a range of measurement (typically greater variation than 10mm between the leaves), use min and max:
<dimensions type="fragmentunit="mm">  <height quantity="176">176</height>  <width quantity="125">125</width> </dimensions> <dimensions type="leafunit="mm">  <height max="315min="290">290-315</height>  <width max="180min="160">160-180</width> </dimensions>

The unit of measurement (mm., etc.) should not be expressed in prose but will be generated by the XSLT transformation.

In retroconversion, if the source catalogue uses "c.", the precision attribute should be used. (The default value of precision is assumed to be high.)
<dimensions type="leafunit="mm">  <height max="315min="290"   precision="medium">c.    290</height>  <width max="180min="160"   precision="medium">c.    160</width> </dimensions>
If there is evidence of cropping (e.g. loss of text in the margins), record this using the attribute cert with the value low
<dimensions type="leafunit="mm">  <height cert="lowquantity="290">290</height>  <width quantity="160">160</width> </dimensions> <note>Severely cropped in the upper margin.</note>

<extent> will not presently accommodate <locus>. For manuscripts that are not composite, but which nonetheless contain sections (perhaps, but not necessarily a whole quire or quires) with dimensions different to others of the volume, it is not currently possible to provide separate measurements that are distinguished by folio range. These details may be recorded in a <note>.

For rolls, provide both the dimensions of the roll as a whole, followed by those of the membranes.
<dimensions type="rollunit="mm">  <height quantity="4425">4425</height>  <width quantity="290">290</width> </dimensions> <dimensions type="membraneunit="mm">  <height max="255min="220">220-255</height>  <width quantity="290">290</width> </dimensions>
Since the dimensions of fragments or cuttings could interfere with quantitative analyses of leaf dimensions, it is necessary to define them separately using the values fragment or cutting(see <objectType> for definitions of these terms). Regardless of what the fragment comprises, measurements of its total dimensions should be given, to the millimetre.
<dimensions type="fragmentunit="mm">  <height quantity="172">172</height>  <width quantity="93">93</width> </dimensions>
It may be possible, in some instances, to provide or infer the original dimensions of a leaf from what survives in fragmentary form. e.g. a bifolium may have been flattened to form an endleaf but was not trimmed in the process; e.g. a fragment of papyrus may contain text on the recto and verso sufficient to calculate an approximate number of lines and original size of the leaf. Use cert to indicate where such inferences have been made, adding within <note> an explanation of the evidence.
<dimensions type="fragmentunit="mm">  <height quantity="183">183</height>  <width quantity="179">179</width> </dimensions> <dimensions type="leafunit="mm">  <height cert="highquantity="179">179</height>  <width cert="highquantity="106">106</width> </dimensions> <note>The fragment comprises a flattened bifolium, trimmed along its original left-hand edge and rotated 45 degrees anti-clockwise and inserted into the volume as a pastedown. The right-hand edge appears to have been left untrimmed. </note>
<dimensions type="fragmentunit="mm">  <height quantity="81">81</height>  <width quantity="48">48</width> </dimensions> <dimensions type="leafunit="mm">  <height cert="lowquantity="240">240</height>  <width cert="lowquantity="140">140</width> </dimensions> <note>The dimensions of the original leaf have been inferred from the amount of text remaining on the recto and verso and the likely space required to copy the intervening text between the end of the recto and the beginning of the verso. </note>

Measurements of the ruled and/or written spaces is often best given under <layout>. However, it is recognised that in printed catalogues, these measurements usually follow immediately on from measurements of leaf size (usually in brackets). In order to accommodate the continuation of this practice, and assist in retroconversion, the present guide accepts that it may be desirable to give measurements of ruled and/or written spaces under <extent>. Follow the practices as outlined above, using the attribute type with the values ruled or written as appropriate.

Concluding examples:
<extent>  <seg type="leaf">   <num type="later_endleafvalue="4">iv</num> +  <num type="leafvalue="288">288</num> + <num type="later_endleafvalue="2">ii</num>  </seg>  <seg type="dimensions">   <dimensions type="leafunit="mm">    <height quantity="350">350</height>    <width quantity="245">245</width>   </dimensions>  </seg> </extent>
<extent>  <seg type="object">   <objectType>Cutting</objectType>, of a large    historiated initial. </seg>  <seg type="leaf">   <num type="leaf">1</num>  </seg>  <seg type="dimensions">   <dimensions type="fragmentunit="mm">    <height quantity="334">334</height>    <width quantity="291">291</width>   </dimensions>   <dimensions type="leafunit="mm">    <height cert="highquantity="680">680</height>    <width cert="highquantity="450">450</width>   </dimensions>   <note>The cutting was removed from Florence,      Bibliotheca Laurenziana, Cod. Corale 2, from which      total leaf dimensions have been taken.</note>  </seg> </extent>
1.6.4.2.2. Foliation

The <foliation> element is used to provide information about the systems used to number the folios or pages in the manuscript. It should record where and in what medium the numbers are written, and when this was done, and the sequence of those numbers. Where multiple systems have been used these can be referred to elsewhere if xml:id attributes are used. For example:

<foliation xml:id="original">  <p>Original foliation in red Arab numerals in the outer    margin of each recto</p> </foliation> <foliation xml:id="modern">  <p>Additional pagination in pencil in <locus from="1bto="67a">ff. 1b-67a</locus>  </p> </foliation>
The dating attributes notBefore, notAfter and (less probably) when may be used if desired to (note: this is a customization and not currently part of the TEI P5 standard).
<foliation notAfter="1500notBefore="1400">Fifteenth-century foliation in roman numerals.</foliation>

The <fw> element can be used to describe running heads. For example:

<foliation>  <p>   <fw place="lefttype="pagxml:lang="bo">Has pagination      in Tibetan</fw>   <fw place="lefttype="sigxml:lang="bo">ཁི</fw>  </p> </foliation>
1.6.4.2.3. Collation

The collation formula should be given inside the <formula> element.

The mainStructures attribute (a customization not currently part of the TEI P5 standard) may be used to record the most frequently occuring quire structure(s). The value of the attribute should be the number of leaves in the most frequently-occuring structure(s). A single value indicates that the given quire structure occurs in approximately 80% or more of quires. Multiple values indicate that the given structures in combination account for approximately 80% or more of quires; the most frequently-occuring structure should be placed first.
<collation mainStructures="8">  <formula>I-XXII(8),    XXIII(3)</formula> </collation> <collation mainStructures="12 16">  <formula>I(14),    II-III(12), IV(16), V-VI(12), VII(16), VIII-XI(12),    XII(16), XIII(12), XIV(16), XV(10), XVI(16),    XVII(13)</formula> </collation>
The <formula> element should be used for brief collation formulae. For more detailed formulae, use the <list> element with attribute type of value collationFormula.
<collation>  <list>   <item>2 modern paper endleaves</item>   <item>1 medieval endleaf</item>   <item>Quire 1<hi rend="superscript">6</hi> (fols      1-6)</item>   <item>Quire 2<hi rend="superscript">8</hi> (fols      7-14)</item>   <item>Quire 3<hi rend="superscript">10</hi> (fols      15-24)</item>   <item>Quire 4<hi rend="superscript">12</hi> (fols      25-36)</item>   <item>2 modern paper endleaves</item>  </list> </collation> <!-- todo: this should be regarded as a temporary solution? toDO: visColl? -->

The following terminology is recommended:

Not present when a leaf has been removed or lost, without affecting the contents of the volume, but for reasons that cannot presently be established.
Excised when a leaf has clearly been cut out deliberately (esp. if blank).
Missing when a leaf has been lost, perhaps but not necessarily accidentally, causing the text or decorative scheme to become imperfect.
Cancelled when a leaf has been removed but there is no evident interruption to the text or decorative scheme (e.g. leaf with an error, removed during copying).
Inserted when an extra leaf is contemporary with the production of the manuscript (e.g. a miniature on a single leaf in a Book of Hours).
Added when an extra leaf is a later insertion.
Record quire or leaf signatures in the <signatures> element. Use the attribute type to distinguish leaf and quire signatures. (NB this is a customization and not currently part of the TEI standard.)
  • leaf: the description refers to leaf or bifolium signatures (usually located in the lower right-hand corner of the recto side of the leaves in the first half of a quire, usually in alphanumerical sequence).
  • quire: the descripion refers to quire signatures or numbers, usually on the verso of the last leaf of the quire, or sometimes the recto of the first leaf, which assign a sequence of numbers, letters or a combination thereof to the sequence of quires.
<signatures type="leaf">Bifolium signatures, a-k, accompanied by Roman numerals, on Quires 1-10; none thereafter.</signatures> <signatures type="quire">Quires numbered 1-12 in a sixteenth-century hand.</signatures>

Record the catchwords in the <catchwords> element.

For multi-part manuscripts, the collation of each part should be recorded at the level of the msPart; it may also be recorded at the level of the manuscript as a whole if this aids clarity. In retroconversion this is likely to involve reorganization of the formula.

1.6.4.2.4. Condition
This element is used to provide a brief description of the overall condition of the manuscript: detached, loose, torn, mutilated or otherwise damaged leaves; flaking ink or pigments or ‘bleed-through’; deliberate damage inflicted upon decorative elements; post-medieval ‘touching up’ of the text or decoration; damp, creasing or anything else that affects the colouration of the parchment or paper or affects the legibility of the text; weak joints, detached boards, loose headbands and other damage to bindings. It is not necessary to repeat information about excised / missing / cancelled leaves or gatherings that has already been provided under <collation>. If there is a large quantity of information to record, use <p> to separate it into paragraphs.
<condition>  <p>Several of the miniatures have been rubbed and the    pigments smudged (<locus from="10vto="10v">10v</locus>, <locus from="26vto="26v">26v</locus>, <locus from="30vto="30v">30v</locus>, <locus from="33vto="33v">33v</locus>, <locus from="44vto="44v">44v</locus>, <locus from="51vto="51v">51v</locus>).</p>  <p>Pigments have also flaked away in places (<locus from="10vto="10v">10v</locus>, <locus from="59vto="51v">59v</locus>) and transferred to facing    leaves (<locus from="44vto="45r">44v-45r</locus>).</p> </condition>
1.6.4.3. Layout Description

The layout section (which might more fully be called ‘layout and preparation of the page’) should be used to record: written and/or ruled space (but see also under Extent); number of columns and number of written and/or ruled lines; how and according to what pattern ruling was executed; whether the writing is ‘above’ or ‘below’ top line; and evidence for pricking of the page. This section comprises one or more <layout> elements inside the <layoutDesc> element.

If desired, the <seg> element may be used to divide the content of a <layout> element, using attribute type to label the sections, suggested values ruling, pricking.

Give the number of columns and ruled lines in the <layout> element using the columns and ruledLines or writtenLines attribute. If the number of columns and/or written or ruled lines varies give the minimum and maximum values with whitespace in-between.

In retroconversion: if a varying number of lines and/or columns is given, but a typical number is specified, encode the typical number in the attributes.
<layout columns="2">1-10 cols. (typically 2)</layout>
Give the height and width of the writing area in mm (with 5 mm precision) in the <dimensions> element (type attribute with value written, preceding this with the explanatory text 'written space').
<layout columns="1writtenLines="30">30 long lines; written space <dimensions type="writtenunit="mm">   <height quantity="290">290</height>   <width quantity="160">160</width>  </dimensions> </layout> <layoutDesc>  <layout columns="1ruledLines="28">28 lines ruled in pale    brown ink, with single vertical bounding lines,    extending the full height of the page, ruled on the    flesh side of the leaves with an instrument which    produced a scored line, but also often left a brown    'crayon' trace. <seg type="pricking">    <hi rend="smallcaps">PRICKINGS</hi> are often visible      in the upper and lower margins, and in the outer      margin c.7 mm. below the bottom ruled      line.</seg>  </layout> </layoutDesc>

In most descriptions, you need only provide a count of the number of written lines. If there is a discernible difference between the number of lines ruled and the number of lines written, use both ruledLines and writtenLines in order to differentiate.

There is as yet no straightforward means of recording the varying dimensions of columns and intercolumnar margins for the more complex, multi-column layouts such as those found in glossed books. Give a prose description instead.

Record the written (and/or ruled) space in the <dimensions> element with type of written/ruled as appropriate.

The description of the ruling type may be according to: a printed repertory (use the standard markup for repertoria); a verbal description; the formula established by D. Muzerelle, De re rigatoria [http://www.palaeographia.org/muzerelle/index.htm]. In the latter case the formula should be enclosed in a <formula> element with attribute notation of value Muzerelle

<layoutDesc>  <layout columns="2writtenLines="24 52">   <locus from="29rscheme="foliosto="30v">Fols.      29r-30v</locus>: written space <dimensions type="written">    <height quantity="165unit="mm">165</height>    <width quantity="115unit="mm">115</width>   </dimensions>   <note>Main text always 24 lines per page. In the      commentary surrounding the main text there around      twice as many lines per page.</note>  </layout> </layoutDesc> <layout columns="1"  rulingMedium="leadpointtopLine="abovewrittenLines="25">25 long lines. <seg type="pricking">Pricked in the outer margins.</seg> Ruled in leadpoint; ruling often very faint, with double vertical bounding lines extending the full height of the page, and the first, third, twenty-third and twenty-fifth horizontal lines extending the full width of the page (Muzerelle, <ref target="http://www.palaeographia.org/muzerelle/mastara.htm">Mastara</ref>, formula <formula notation="Muzerelle">2-2/0/101-101/J</formula>). Written above top line. Written space <dimensions type="writtenunit="mm">   <height max="125min="115">c. 115-125</height>   <width max="85min="75">75-85</width>  </dimensions> </layout>

If the layout varies between different sections of the manuscript, use separate <layout> elements to record this.

1.6.4.3.1. Complex or unusual layouts

Complex or unusual layouts may be encoded using the type and subtype attributes on <layout>. (Note that this customization is not currently part of the TEI P5 standard.) For example:

To encode the layout of glossed manuscripts in textus inclusus format.
<layout columns="2type="text"  writtenLines="34 35">Text in 2 cols. of c. 34/35 lines, main text block <dimensions type="writtenunit="mm">   <height>162</height>   <width>96</width>  </dimensions> </layout> <layout columns="2type="gloss"  writtenLines="66 76">Gloss in 2 cols. of c. 66-76 lines, text block including gloss <dimensions type="writtenunit="mm">   <height>265</height>   <width>166</width>  </dimensions> </layout>
1.6.4.3.2. Layout of fragments

The type and subtype attributes should be used to encode the layout of fragments if the written area of a page is not fully preserved.

To encode the existing form of a fragment, use type with fragment

If neither the full height or width of the written space is preserved:
<layout columns="1type="fragment"  writtenLines="12">Lower outer quarter of the leaf: 1 col., 12 lines.</layout>
If the full height of the written area is preserved:
<layout columns="1subtype="fullHeight"  type="fragmentwrittenLines="55">(at least) 1 col., 55 lines</layout>
If the full width of the written area is preserved:
<layout columns="2subtype="fullWidth"  type="fragmentwrittenLines="46">2 cols., at least 46 lines</layout>

For processing purposes this encoding should be interpreted as, respectively: at least one column, at least 12 lines; at least one column, 55 lines; two columns, at least 46 lines.

If the original layout can be reconstructed with some confidence, use type with reconstruction and a relevant value for the cert attribute.
<layout cert="highcolumns="2"  type="reconstructionwrittenLines="44">2 cols., originally 44 lines (42 lines extant at fullest extent, one fragmentary line at the bottom, one line missing at the top), written space <dimensions type="writtenunit="mm">   <height precision="lowquantity="240">c. 240</height>   <width precision="lowquantity="150">c. 150</width>  </dimensions> </layout>
1.6.4.4. Description of Hands

Each distinct hand and/or script in the codicological unit should be described in a separate <handNote> element in the <handDesc> element. The <handDesc> element itself has an attribute hands which can be used to record the number of hands identified. This is optional but recommended. The value of the attribute should be the number of hands involved in the original production of the manuscripts and should not include later additions or annotations.

The <handNote> element may have an xml:id attribute with the values hand-1, hand-2 etc, numbered in the order of appearance in the manuscript. If the same hand occurs in another unit the attribute sameAs may be used with a reference to the xml:id of that <handNote>.

The folios where the hand occurs should be specified and may be encoded using the <locus> or <locusGrp> element. Where the scribe is identifiable, either from the writing or a subscription, give the name in a <persName> element using the key attribute pointing to the persons authority file, and the role attribute with value scr.

The scope attribute can be used to indicate the extent of the hand's appearance in the manuscript. Its values can be one of:

  • sole
  • major
  • minor

The script attribute may be used to provide a high-level classification of the script. Suggested values in Western manuscripts are:

  • capitalsSquare
  • capitalsRustic
  • uncial
  • halfUncial
  • minusculeInsular
  • minusculeVernacular (use for English vernacular minuscule / Anglo-Saxon minuscule)
  • minusculeCaroline (use for both English and continental variants of the script)
  • minuscule (other forms of minuscule: Beneventan, Luxeuil, etc.)
  • protogothic (‘praegothica’)
  • textualisNorthern
  • textualisSouthern
  • semitextualis
  • cursivaAntiquior (‘anglicana’, ‘anglicana formata‘, etc.)
  • cursiva (‘cancelleresca’, ‘bastarda’, ‘lettre batarde’, ‘secretary’)
  • hybrida (‘semihybrida’, ‘loopless bastarda’, ‘fractura’, ‘mercantesca’)
  • gothicoAntiqua (‘fere-humanistica’, ‘gothico-humanistica’)
  • humanisticaTextualis
  • humanisticaSemitextualis
  • humanisticaCursiva

The classification for early scripts is based on Brown (1990) with modifications, for Gothic scripts on Derolez (2003), for humanistic scripts on Derolez (2011).

The attribute execution can be used to describe the formality of the script's execution, according to the classifications developed by Lieftinck, Gumbert, and Derolez. Note that this customization is not currently part of the TEI P5 standard.

  • formata: execution is calligraphic
  • libraria: a normal level of execution
  • currens: execution is informal

In Islamicate manuscripts suggested script values are:

  • muhaqqaq
  • rayhani
  • naskh
  • maghribi
  • bihari
  • nasta_liq
  • thuluth
  • tawqi_
  • riqa_
  • ghubar
  • ta_liq
  • diwani
  • ruq_ah
  • siyaqah
  • unknown
For further levels of classification the <term> element with type of script may be used.
<handDesc hands="1">  <handNote script="cursivaAntiquior">Written in <term type="script">anglicana</term> by a single    scribe.</handNote> </handDesc>
Punctuation should be described in the <handNote> element. Use the <term> element with attribute type of value punctuation to mark up particular types of punctuation, if desired.
<handNote>Written in gothic <term type="script">textura    quadrata</term>. Punctuation by <term type="punctuation">point</term> and <term type="punctuation">double    point</term>.</handNote>
1.6.4.5. Musical Notation
Musical notation should be described in a <p>element in the <musicNotation> element with a <locus> element. Multiple types of notation should appear in separate <p> elements.
<musicNotation>  <p>8 long staves with square notation</p> </musicNotation>
1.6.4.6. Description of the Decoration

The <decoDesc> element contains a description of the decoration in the manuscript or codicological unit, together with other ‘decorative’ aspects of the presentation of the text such as rubrication, It can only contain the elements <p>, <summary>, and <decoNote>.

Within the tag <decoDesc>, use <decoNote> to provide a hierarchical breakdown of the decoration in the manuscript, in the order given in the following table, with the appropriate values of type attribute.

Miniatures, listed in the following order: full-page, half-page, small, column miniature
Bas-de-page scenes bas-de-page
Borders, in the following order: historiated, other border
Diagram diagram
Map map
Headpiece headpiece
Canon table canonTable
Carpet page carpetPage
Historiated initials (i.e., containing an identifiable narrative scene) (Brown: historiated initial) histInit
decorated initials (Brown: decorated initial, anthropomorphic initial, zoomorphoric initial, gymnastic initial, inhabited initial). decInit
coloured initials colInit
initials with penwork flourishing (Reallexikon zur Deutschen Kunstgeschichte: fleuronné) (Brown: pen-flourished initial, littera florissa). Also use for so-called arabesque initials. flourInit
chrysography (i.e. writing in gold) chrysography
plain initials plainInit
Line fillers lineFill
cadels cadel
instructions instructions
Spaces left for decoration unfilled
None (if an existing decoration being retro-converted specifies this) none
rubrication rubrication

In Fihrist, the following values for the type attribute should be used:

  • border
  • diagram
  • frieze
  • illustration
  • initial
  • map
  • marginal
  • miniature
  • mixed
  • other
  • paratext
  • printmark
  • publishmark
  • rubrication
  • secondary
  • tooling
  • unspecified
  • unwan
  • vignette

Artists should be identified using the <persName> element with role = art and key referring to the persons authority file.

<decoDesc>  <decoNote type="miniature">   <p>Two full-page miniatures, framed by green, blue,      orange, ochre or pink panels linked by gold      quadrilobes and surrounded by short black sprays      terminating in gold disks and ivy leaves.</p>   <p>The second miniature is signed ‘Willelmus de monte      acuto me fecit’ by the artist <persName key="person_1234role="art">William Montague (fl.        1390s?) (<locus from="37rto="37r">37r</locus>).</persName>   </p>  </decoNote> </decoDesc>

To provide a more structured entry in the case of detailed descriptions of decoration, use the <list>, <head>, and <item> elements.

<!-- abbreviated from MS. Buchanan e. 10 --><decoNote type="histInit">  <list>   <head>Two five-line historiated initials:</head>   <item>    <locus from="19vto="19v">(fol. 19v)</locus>      Obsecro te. Virgin and Child enthroned; the Virgin      holding a red fruit(?).</item>   <item>    <locus from="23rto="23r">(fol. 23r)</locus> O      intemerata. Pietà. </item>  </list> </decoNote> <decoNote type="decInit">Four- or three-line initials in blue and red, enclosing foliage, on a gold ground, at the start of each text with a large miniature; two-line initals in gold, on a blue and red ground with white tracery, to psalms, capitula, lessons, etc. and the KL monograms in the calendar; similar one-line initials to verses and other minor divisions; similar line-fillers throughout.</decoNote>
The subjects of miniatures can be classified using the <term> element with attribute type of value iconography. The ref attribute can be used to point to a thesaurus, such as Iconclass.
<decoNote type="histInit">  <list>   <head>One six-line historiated initial: </head>   <item>    <locus from="49rto="49r">(fol. 49r)</locus>      Hours of the Virgin, Lauds. <term ref="http://www.iconclass.org/rkd/73A6"     type="iconography">Visitation</term>. </item>  </list> </decoNote>

Aspects of the manuscript relating to the presentation of the text - notably rubrication - should also be included in the <decoDesc> element (rather than in the <layout> element, using <decoNote> with attribute type of value rubrication.

1.6.4.7. Additions

Marginalia, notes, and other additions of interest should usually be recorded in the <additions> element, inside one or more <p> or <note> elements. The <note> element can have the type and subtype attributes. Use <locus> to specify the location of these features.

If the language of the marginalia is significant (e.g., Latin marginalia in a Greek manuscript), the marginalia will need to be recorded as an additional text using <msItem> in <msContents>.

<msItem xml:id="MS_Auct_T_2_6-item2">  <note subtype="glosstype="additions">Marginal and interlinear    Latin glosses.</note>  <textLang mainLang="la">Latin</textLang> </msItem>
1.6.4.8. Binding Description

The binding should be described in one or more paragraphs (<p>) in a <binding> element inside the <bindingDesc> element. The standard dating attributes should be used on the <binding> element if information about the date of the binding is available.

The following order may be followed in the description:

  • covering material and coverage (full, half, quarter; textile; limp vellum; treasure)
  • chemise (alum-tawed, textile)
  • board material (wooden boards, pasteboard)
  • tooling patterns (blind, gold)
  • spine covering and tooling, incl. labels
  • metalwork fittings (plates, plaques, enamels, bosses, cornerpieces, strap and pin, clasps, chain staples).
  • inlaid/inset plaques
  • labels (esp. horn-plaques)

Key elements of the description may be marked with the <term> with relevant type attribute and with attribute ref referring to the appropriate URI in the Ligatus thesaurus.

Give the height, width and depth of the binding may be given in mm (with 5 mm precision) in the <dimensions> element (type attribute with value binding).

A description of decorative features on the binding can be recorded in one or more <decoNote> elements (note that this needs to be outside the <p> element as a child of <binding>)

Use the <condition> element to record repairs to the binding, such as rebacking.

Fore-edge painting or decoration should be described inside a <decoDesc> element, in a <decoNote> element with attribute type of value foreedge.

Bookmarks and other page markers should be described in a separate paragraph in the binding section, using where possible the vocabulary of the Ligatus thesaurus, and linking to that vocabulary using the <term> element with attribute type of value bookmark and relevant ref attribute.

<bindingDesc>  <binding notAfter="1700notBefore="1600">   <p>Light brown <term ref="http://w3id.org/lob/concept/1238"     type="material">calfskin</term> over paste-laminate boards,      leather label on spine with title and shelfmark      tooled in gold, gauffered fore-edges. 17th      century.</p>   <condition>Rebacked.</condition>   <p>    <term ref="http://www.ligatus.org.uk/lob/concept/2945"     type="bookmark">Leaf tab markers</term>.</p>  </binding> </bindingDesc>

Evidence of former bindings, or the reuse of earlier binding material in a modern binding, should be recorded in a separate <binding> element.

Note that all the above may require restructuring of an original description during retroconversion.

<bindingDesc>  <binding notAfter="1900notBefore="1600">   <p>Sewing not visible; tightly rebound between      19th-century pasteboards, reusing earlier panels      (see below); the centre of each cover inlaid with a      17th-century oval medallion of red leather tooled in      gilt (perhaps replacing the identifying mark of a      previous owner); the spine similarly tooled, without      raised bands or title-piece (similar in design to   <hi rend="italic">ibid</hi>. pl. XIXa); coloured      endbands; the edges of the leaves and boards gilt.      Boxed.</p>  </binding>  <binding notAfter="1590notBefore="1580">   <p>The binding re-uses panels of 16th-century brown      leather with gilt tooling <foreign rend="italic">à        la fanfare</foreign>, Paris c. 1580-90, in the      style associated with Clovis Eve (of the bindings      ill. in Hobson, <title>Les reliures à la        fanfare</title>, the boards are closest in general      design to pl. XXI b).</p>  </binding> </bindingDesc>
1.6.4.9. Seals

The <sealDesc> element supplies information about the seals attached to documents. It can either contain a text description in <p> tags, or any number of <seal> elements. These can be numbered using n attributes.

The seal impression of stamps of ownership may be described in <decoDesc>, in stylistic and decorative terms, or in <provenance> as regards its textual content.

1.6.4.10. Accompanying material

The <accMat> element may be used for brief descpritions of endleaves, waste leaves and similar material that are not part of the ‘original’ codex but were supplied during a binding process. If a detailed codicological description is required, use <msPart>

Use <p> to split up descriptions of multiple materials, and <locus> to identifying their locations.

1.6.5. History

The <history> element should include information about the origin, provenance and acquisition of the manuscript.

1.6.5.1. Origin

In the <origin> element specify date (<origDate>) and place (<origPlace>) (if known) of the manuscript's production. If not known, state this in a <p> element. Do not enclose a statement such as "No date" or "n.d." with <origDate> tags.

1.6.5.1.1. origDate

Dating attributes from the set notBefore, notAfter, from, to and when MUST be used for <origDate>

from and to denote a known period of writing, presumed to be more or less continuous, beginning at one date and ending at another. notBefore and notAfter denote the terminus a quo and terminus ad quem within which the writing is believed to have occured.

The values of those attributes are a date, starting with the year, then the month, then the day, separated by hyphens (but most often just a year, always expressed using four-digits) must be in the Gregorian calendar. the calendar attribute records the calendar system used by the expression of the date in the text enclosed by the <origDate> tags. The text is for display, the attributes are the machine-readable interpretation. For example:

<origDate calendar="#Hijri-qamari"  when="1684">1096 AH</origDate>

In retroconversion, the values given to the element and its attributes should reflect the conventions of the particular catalogue as expressed in the catalogue or, if necessary, as inferred by the encoder. (If inferred, a note to this effect may be added in <encodingDesc>.)

<origDate notAfter="1025notBefore="1000">s. xi<hi rend="superscript">in</hi> </origDate>

Values used in the Bodleian medieval catalogue (intended to capture the usage of the Summary Catalogue and Paecht and Alexander) are as follows:

Early 14th century 1300-1310
Mid 14th century 1340-1360
Late 14th century 1390-1400
14th century, first quarter 1300-1325

Etc.

Values of dating attributes should be inclusive, i.e. 1000-1050, not 1001-1050 or 1000-1049.

The attribute evidence MAY be used to indicate the evidence for dating and localization. It is assumed that this will usually be equivalent to conjecture. If there is reasonable certainty about the dating or localization (the manuscript is 'dated or datable') this SHOULD be indicated using the attribute cert with value high, and the nature of the evidence may be specified with the evidence attribute.

In retroconversion, authoritative sources may differ regarding the date (or origin) of a manuscript. This can also be recorded using multiple <origDate> elements. (The resp attribute may be used on the element to indicate responsibility in a machine-readable way).
<origDate calendar="Gregorian"  notAfter="1300notBefore="1290">13th century, end (Hutter)</origDate> or <origDate calendar="Gregorian"  notAfter="1325notBefore="1300">14th century, first quarter (Palau)</origDate>

For manuscripts with significant later additions, textual or decorative, use additional <origDate> elements with type of additions

<origDate calendar="Gregorian"  notAfter="1225notBefore="1200">13th century, first quarter</origDate>; <origDate calendar="Gregorian"  notAfter="1500notBefore="1400type="additions">additions, 15th century</origDate>
<origDate calendar="Gregoriancert="high"  when="1488">1488 (fols. 126-208)</origDate>; <origDate calendar="Gregoriancert="high"  notAfter="1488notBefore="1464">1464 × 1488 (fols. 1-125v)</origDate>
1.6.5.1.2. origPlace

The content of <origPlace> should where possible be structured in the order (where relevant), country, settlement, institution. These should be marked up using the <country>, <settlement>, and <org> elements, which MUST have attributes key linking to the places authority file. Or, in catalogues such as Fihrist which have a subjects authority file instead of a places one, the key attribute should be "subject_" followed by the Library of Congress Name Authority identifier (e.g. "subject_n12345678").

There MUST be a country or country-like entity (see below), inside a <country> tag, if the <origPlace> element is used.

In Western manuscripts, countries of origin are typically expressed with reference to modern countries with some exceptions. Examples: England, France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, but Bohemia, Dalmatia, Serbia, Flanders.

For manuscripts with significant later additions, textual or decorative, use additional <origPlace> elements with type of additions
<origPlace>  <country key="place_1000070">French</country>, <region key="place_7024267">Brittany</region> </origPlace> <origPlace type="additions">additions, <country key="place_7002445">England</country> </origPlace>
For manuscripts produced in more than one place (or, where there is more than one potential place of origin), use multiple <origPlace> elements, with the cert attribute if necessary.
<origPlace cert="low">  <country key="place_1000080">Italian (?)</country> </origPlace> or <origPlace cert="low">  <country key="place_1000070">French</country>, <region>South</region> (?) </origPlace>
1.6.5.2. Provenance

Record the different stages in the provenance in one or more <provenance> elements.

There are different conventions for the presentation of provenance evidence. Recommended best practice in these guidelines (which may involve some restructuring of material in the case of retroconversion) is that where possible each provenance event should occur in its own <provenance> element, which should have relevant dating attributes (when, notBefore, etc.). (They may alternatively contain <date> elements with those attributes.) As elsewhere, from and to denote a known period, presumed to be more or less continuous, beginning at one date and ending at another. notBefore and notAfter denote the terminus a quo and terminus ad quem within which the writing is believed to have occured. when denotes a single event (such as a dated signature or the donation of an item to a library). People involved in the transfer of ownership should be marked up with <persName> tags, with a role attribute (a Library of Congress relator code, usually "fmo" for former owner).

Pressmarks and shelfmarks should be recorded in a <q> element with attribute type, value pressmark; see 1.3.10. Quotations from the manuscript. It is not necesary to mark up pressmarks and shelfmarks which are already recorded as manuscript identifiers.
<acquisition notAfter="1468">At the head of f. iii<hi rend="superscript">v</hi> is ‘Liber domus scolarium de Merton ex dono magistro <persName key="person_2899role="fmo dnr">Hamondi Haydok</persName> incathenandus in libraria anno Domini m<hi rend="superscript">mo</hi>cccc<hi rend="superscript">o</hi>lxviii<hi rend="superscript">o</hi>’, in the same hand as Wyght’s <foreign>ex dono</foreign> in MS 38. For Hammond Haydok, see MS 16. On the front pastedown is a brief table of contents, s. xvii, and <q type="pressmark">N. 3.    13. Art:</q>, canc. and replaced with ‘A. 1. 10 (XXXIX)’ in red. The College bookplate. At the head of f. i is <q>M.    A. 2. 5</q>, s. xvii. ‘13’ is inked on the foredge.</acquisition>
1.6.5.3. Acquisition

The <acquisition> element should describe the last stage of the manuscript's history, i.e. how it was acquired by its present owners. It SHOULD have relevant dating attributes. Because the present owner, locaton etc. of the manuscript are recorded elsewhere in the manuscript description, it is NOT necessary to encode them using <orgName> or <persName> elements.

Note the usage of the different dating attributes in the following example.

<provenance notAfter="1833">  <persName key="person_2854role="fmo">William Wilson</persName>, F.S.A. (-1832?), of the Minories, his sale, Christie's, 31 Jan.-1 Feb. 1833, lot 56 on 1 Feb.; bought by Thorpe for £53. 11s. </provenance> <provenance from="1833to="1834">Purchased from Thorpe by <persName key="person_69848690role="fmo">Douce</persName>, Feb. 1833.</provenance> <acquisition when="1834">Bequeathed by Douce to the Bodleian in 1834.</acquisition>

The <acquisition> element is also the place to record any funding bodies which contributed to the cost of purchasing the manuscript. Each should be tagged as <orgName> elements with a role attribute of either "spn" or "fnd". The websites of sponsors, and their logos, can be included. For example:

<acquisition> Purchased with the support of <orgName role="spn">   <ref target="https://visit.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/friends-of-the-bodleian">Friends of the Bodleian</ref>  </orgName>, and the <orgName role="spn">   <ref target="https://www.vam.ac.uk/purchasegrantfund">V&amp;A Purchase Grant Fund</ref>   <graphic url="https://www.fihrist.org.uk/images/logos/vampgf250.png"/>  </orgName>, and a private donor. </acquisition>

Ideally the @url attribute of the <graphic> element should point to an image hosted by the funding organization. The <graphic> element cannot be a child of the <funder> element, but must be enclosed in a <persName> or <orgName> element.

Contributions to the cost of cataloguing the manuscript should be recorded in the Title Statement.

1.6.6. Additional

The <additional> element is used to provide: information about the source of the description; information about the availability and custodial history of the manuscript; information about surrogates; bibliography; and links to online resources.

1.6.6.1. Record source and history

The <source> element, contained in <recordHist>, provides a prose description of the source(s) from which the description has been derived; this information will overlap with the information in <respStmt>. It may contain <listBibl> and <bibl> elements.

<adminInfo>  <recordHist>   <source>Description adapted (2018) from the      following sources: <listBibl>     <bibl>      <title>The Douce Legacy</title> (1984), no.          244</bibl>     <bibl>Pächt and Alexander</bibl>     <bibl>S. J. P. Van Dijk, <title>Handlist of the            Latin Liturgical Manuscripts in the Bodleian            Library Oxford : Vol. 2: Office Books</title>          (typescript, 1957)</bibl>    </listBibl> Additional description of content and      decoration by Matthew Holford, March 2018.      Previously described in the Summary Catalogue. <listBibl>     <bibl facs="aaz0626.giftype="SC">Summary          Catalogue, vol. 4, p. 607</bibl>     <bibl facs="aaz0627.giftype="SC">Summary          Catalogue, vol. 4, p. 608</bibl>    </listBibl>   </source>  </recordHist> </adminInfo>
1.6.6.2. Availability

The <availability> element can be used to supply information about the availability of a manuscript, using the status attribute. Valid values for status are free, unknown, restricted, offsite, exhibition, printcat, none. It may also contain information about the images or text, such as any restrictions on their use or distribution, their copyright status, etc.

1.6.6.3. Custodial History

The <custodialHist> element can be used to describe a manuscript's custodial history (e.g. conservation, exhibitions) either as prose tagged with <p> elements, or as a series of custodial events, using the <custEvent> element with attributes type, when, etc.

1.6.6.4. Surrogates

The <surrogates> element, which follows <recordHist>, is used to link to digital or other facsimiles where these are hosted independently from the catalogue. The structure of a typical entry is shown below. The subtype attribute on the <bibl> element has the values full, where a manuscript has been digitized in full, or partial, where only selected items are available.

<surrogates>  <bibl subtype="full"   type="digital-facsimile">   <ref target="https://digital.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/inquire/p/34a6037b-12e8-4b12-8920-26c33914fe0e">    <title>Digital Bodleian</title>   </ref>   <note>(full digital facsimile)</note>  </bibl> </surrogates>

Note, when linking to Digital Bodleian, do not use the "permalink" in the right-hand panel. This is a link to a specific page. Instead, click the "iiif" button, copy the long string of letters, numbers and hyphens between "manifest/" and ".json" from your browser's location bar, and paste it after "https://digital.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/inquire/p/" into the target attribute in your TEI file, as in the above example. That ensures the TEI record is associated with the entire manuscript in Digtal Bodleian, and allows it to reciprocate the link back to the catalogue web site automatically.

1.6.6.5. Bibliography

The bibliography of works referring to the manuscript should be recorded in the <additional> element in a <listBibl> element. In the Bodleian medieval catalogue only major printed descriptions or reproductions of the manuscript are listed here; other items should be recorded in the Zotero bibliography. The works should be listed in a chronological order, with the most recent item first.

This section is also used to provide links to online resources such as Pinakes, Trismegistos, JONAS etc. Online resources are placed in a separate <listBibl> element with the heading <head> 'Online resources:'.

<additional>  <listBibl type="WRAPPER">   <listBibl type="PRINT">    <head>Printed descriptions:</head>    <bibl>     <title>The Douce Legacy</title> (1984), no.        65</bibl>    <bibl>A. G. Watson, <title>Catalogue of Dated and          Datable Manuscripts c.435-1600 in Oxford          Libraries</title> (Oxford, 1984), no. 464</bibl>    <bibl>Otto Pächt and J. J. G. Alexander,    <title>Illuminated Manuscripts in the Bodleian          Library Oxford</title>, III (1973), no. 469</bibl>   </listBibl>   <listBibl type="INTERNET">    <head>Online resources:</head>    <bibl>     <ref target="http://jonas.irht.cnrs.fr/manuscrit/40258">      <title>JONAS: Répertoire des textes et des            manuscrits médiévaux d'oc et            d'oïl</title>     </ref>    </bibl>   </listBibl>  </listBibl> </additional>
  • additional (additional) groups additional information, combining bibliographic information about a manuscript or other object, or surrogate copies of it, with curatorial or administrative information.
  • recordHist (recorded history) provides information about the source and revision status of the parent manuscript or object description itself.
  • source (source) describes the original source for the information contained with a manuscript or object description.
  • availability (availability) supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, any licence applying to it, etc.
  • custodialHist (custodial history) contains a description of a manuscript or other object's custodial history, either as running prose or as a series of dated custodial events.
  • surrogates (surrogates) contains information about any representations of the manuscript or other object being described which may exist in the holding institution or elsewhere.
  • listBibl (citation list) contains a list of bibliographic citations of any kind.
  • bibl (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged.

1.6.7. Multi-part, composite and similar units.

For multi-part manuscripts or in other cases where a ‘syntactical’ description (Andrist et al., 2013) is required, the <msPart> element should be used. These guidelines recommend the use of <msPart> for:

  • manuscripts originally separate, bound together at later dates
  • manuscripts with added codicological units
  • palimpsest manuscripts
  • re-used papyrus
  • manuscripts with replacement leaves
  • description of endleaves, in cases where a detailed description is required (for short descriptions of endleaves, use <accMat>)

The definition and understanding of composite manuscripts varies between different codicological traditions. The Western tradition has typically understood a composite manuscript to be composed of more than one combined production/usage unit. (For this terminology see Kwakkel 2002). Manuscripts with separate-but-contemporaneous production units, that were not also at some point separate usage units, are not typically catalogued as composite, although the different production units are usually noted in the description. (For a recent example, see Hanna and Rundle, Cat. Christ Church MSS., MS. 92.)

The use of <msPart> is not recommended for describing added text or decoration where this has been added on the original codicological unit as a supplement to existing text (rather than, as with a palimpsest, as a replacement for that text). In those cases, use of multiple <origDate> and/or <origPlace> elements is recommended; see above.

For composite manuscripts, each codicological unit should be described in a separate <msPart> element using the following elements:

  • msIdentifier (manuscript identifier) contains the information required to identify the manuscript or similar object being described.
  • msContents (manuscript contents) describes the intellectual content of a manuscript, manuscript part, or other object either as a series of paragraphs or as a series of structured manuscript items.
  • physDesc (physical description) contains a full physical description of a manuscript, manuscript part, or other object optionally subdivided using more specialized elements from the model.physDescPart class.
  • history (history) groups elements describing the full history of a manuscript, manuscript part, or other object.

Endleaves should be described using one or more <msPart> elements following the <msDesc> element which contains the description of the main manuscript.

The element <msFrag> should not be used for this purpose. This element is used for describing manuscripts that have been 'virtually reconstructed' and is not currently used in this project.

Each codicological unit should be labelled using arabic numerals (or according to the convention of the existing catalogue in the case of retroconversion) inside the <idno> in the <altIdentifier> element inside the <msIdentifier> element. The folios comprising the unit should be given.
<msPart>  <msIdentifier>   <altIdentifier>    <idno type="part">Manuscript I = fols 1-134</idno>   </altIdentifier>  </msIdentifier> </msPart>
The data structure of the <msPart> element assumes that codicological units follow one another sequentially in the manuscript, which (in the case of Western manuscripts) is often but not universally true. In cases where one unit is inserted in the middle of another, the description should be organized to deal with each part in sequential order.
<msPart>  <msIdentifier>   <altIdentifier>    <idno>Merton College MS. 13 - Part I (fols. 3-13,        198-243)</idno>   </altIdentifier>  </msIdentifier>  <msContents>   <textLang mainLang="la">Latin</textLang>   <msItem n="1">    <locus>(fols. 3-13v)</locus>    <title type="desc">Draft sermons</title> <!-- ... -->   </msItem>   <msItem>    <note>For items 2, 51-4 see Part II.</note>    <note>For items 3-50 see Part III.</note>   </msItem>   <msItem n="55">    <locus>(fols. 198-208v)</locus>    <title type="desc">Eight sermons on Ioh. 17: 1-26,        extracted from <persName key="person_66806872"      role="aut">Augustine</persName>, <title key="work_822">Tractatus in Iohannis          Euang.</title>, 104. 2 – 111. 6</title>   </msItem> <!-- ... -->  </msContents> </msPart>
1.6.7.1. Endleaf

Example: MS. Auct. D. 2. 14 (abbreviated)

<msDesc xml:id="MS_Auct_D_2_14"  xml:lang="en">  <msIdentifier> <!-- ... -->  </msIdentifier>  <head>Gospels; Italy, 7th century</head> <!-- ... -->  <msContents> <!-- ... -->  </msContents>  <physDesc> <!-- ... -->  </physDesc>  <history> <!-- ... -->  </history>  <additional> <!-- ... -->  </additional>  <msPart type="endleaf">   <msIdentifier>    <altIdentifier>     <idno type="part">MS. Auct. D. 2. 14 - endleaf,          fol. 173</idno>    </altIdentifier>   </msIdentifier>   <msContents>    <msItem>     <locus>(fol. 173r)</locus>     <title type="desc">Booklist and list of          names</title>     <note>N. R. Ker, <title>Catalogue of Manuscripts            Containing Anglo-Saxon</title> (1957), p. 350 (no.          290).</note>     <textLang mainLang="en">Old English</textLang>    </msItem>    <msItem>     <locus>(fol. 173v)</locus>     <title>Ad introitum porte</title>     <textLang mainLang="la">Latin</textLang>    </msItem>   </msContents>   <history>    <origin>     <origPlace>      <country key="place_7002445">England</country>, <orgName key="org_150107857">Bury St Edmunds</orgName>          (?)</origPlace>     <origDate calendar="Gregorian"      notAfter="1200notBefore="1150">11th century,          second half</origDate>    </origin>    <provenance>'Bealdewuine abb.', fol. 173r, probably        Baldwin, abbot of Bury St Edmunds (d.        1098).</provenance>   </history>  </msPart> </msDesc>
1.6.7.2. Manuscripts with replacement leaves

Example: MS. Holkham Gr. 15 (simplified)

<msDesc> <!-- ... -->  <msContents>   <textLang mainLang="grc">Greek</textLang>   <msItem xml:id="MS_Holkham_Gr_15-item1">    <locus>(fols. 1r-202v)</locus>    <title key="work_13296type="desc">Menologion for        September</title> <!-- ... -->   </msItem>  </msContents>  <physDesc>   <p>11th century core with 14th or 15th century      replacement leaves.</p>   <objectDesc form="codex">    <supportDesc>     <extent> ii + 204<dimensions type="leafunit="mm">       <height>350</height>       <width>250</width>      </dimensions>     </extent>    </supportDesc>    <layoutDesc>     <layout columns="2ruledLines="33">Lake II, 34c;          written in two columns, 33 lines per          column.</layout>    </layoutDesc>   </objectDesc>   <decoDesc>    <decoNote>fol. 1, Sketch with an image of St        Theodora. Various decorated headpieces preceding        each Vita. See Hutter III.1, pp. 59-60.</decoNote>   </decoDesc>   <additions>fol. 55r: ζήτει εἰς τὰς ὀκτὼ τοῦ μηνὸς εἰς      τὴν ἀρχὴν τοῦ βιβλήου ἀναγνώσματα δ<ex>ύ</ex>ο/ εἰς      τὸ σωσίκοσμ<ex>ον</ex> γενέθλον τῆς      ὑπερ<ex>αγίας</ex> ἀμώμου δεσποίνης/ ἡμῶν      Θεοτόκου· Ἀνδρέου κρίτης τοῦ ἱεροσολυμίτου :      -</additions>   <bindingDesc>    <binding>     <p>Holkham binding of black leather, with Coke          family ostrich crest in gilt in the centre of the          upper cover; Date: early nineteenth century.          Rebound by <persName key="person_707role="bnd">John Jones of Liverpool</persName> (worked for          Holkham 1816-1823). SPINE: lettered in gilt:          SYMEONIS| METAPHRASTAE|VITAE| S.S. MARTYRUM| G.R.|          M.S.| SAEC. XII|–| SEP.| </p>    </binding>   </bindingDesc>  </physDesc> <!-- ... -->  <msPart>   <msIdentifier>    <altIdentifier>     <idno>Codicological Unit 1 (fols. 8r-180v)</idno>    </altIdentifier>   </msIdentifier>   <physDesc>    <objectDesc form="codex">     <supportDesc material="perg">      <support> Parchment</support>     </supportDesc>    </objectDesc>   </physDesc>   <history>    <origin>     <origDate notAfter="1100"      notBefore="1050">11th          century, second half</origDate>    </origin>   </history>  </msPart>  <msPart>   <msIdentifier>    <altIdentifier>     <idno>Codicological Unit 2 (fols. 1r-7r,          181r-202v)</idno>    </altIdentifier>   </msIdentifier>   <physDesc>    <objectDesc form="codex">     <supportDesc material="chart">      <support> Paper; replacement leaves</support>     </supportDesc>    </objectDesc>   </physDesc>   <history>    <origin>     <origDate notAfter="1500"      notBefore="1300">14th-15th century</origDate>    </origin>   </history>  </msPart> </msDesc>

1.6.8. Appendix of examples

1.6.8.1. Book of Hours

Divide the contents: Calendar; Suffrages (each saint listed as a separate <msItem>); Hours of the Virgin; Hours of the Passion; and so on – and then, using decimal point numbering for <msItem>, subdivide each of the Hours into the canonical hours, where present (Matins, Lauds, Prime, and so on).

<msItem n="12">  <locus from="34rto="58v">34r-58v</locus>  <title xml:lang="eng">Hours of the Virgin</title>  <textLang mainLang="lat">Latin</textLang>  <msItem n="12.1">   <locus from="34rto="37r">34r-37r</locus>   <title xml:lang="eng">Matins</title>  </msItem> </msItem> <!-- etc. -->
1.6.8.2. Bible

Divide the contents: Prologue to the Vulgate; Old Testament; New Testament; ‘Interpretationes nominum hebraicorum’; and so on - and then, using decimal point numbering for <msItem>, subdivide each one where appropriate, distinguishing between the biblical text and their prologues.

<msItem n="1">  <locus from="2rto="4v">2r-4v</locus>  <title xml:lang="eng">Prologue to the Vulgate</title>  <author> [...] </author>  <msItem n="1.1">   <locus from="2rto="4r">2r-4r</locus>   <title xml:lang="lat">Epistula ad Paulinum      presbyterum</title>   <rubric>    <locus from="1rto="1r">1r</locus>Incipit prologus      Ieromini super totam bibliam </rubric>   <incipit xml:lang="lat">    <locus from="1rto="1r">1r</locus>Frater Ambrosius      tua mihi munuscula preferens </incipit>   <explicit xml:lang="lat">    <locus from="4rto="4r">4r</locus>facile contempnit      omnia qui se semper cogitat esse moriturum </explicit>   <note>PL 23, 540-549; Stegmüller 284, 3306; CPL      620</note>   <note>CSEL 54 (1910), 442-65.</note>  </msItem>  <msItem n="1.2">   <locus from="4rto="4v">4r-4v</locus>   <title xml:lang="eng">Prologue to the Old      Testament</title>   <rubric xml:lang="lat">    <locus from="4rto="4r">4r</locus>Incipit prologus      beati Ieromini in pentachum </rubric>   <incipit xml:lang="lat">    <locus from="4rto="4r">4r</locus> Desiderii meii      desideratus accepi epistulas </incipit>   <explicit xml:lang="lat">    <locus from="4vto="4v">4v</locus> possim eodem      spiritu quo scripti sunt libri in latinum eos      transferre sermonem </explicit>   <note>PL 28, 177-184; Stegmüller 285.</note>  </msItem> </msItem> <msItem n="2">  <locus from="5rto="321v">5r-321v</locus>  <title xml:lang="eng">Vulgate, Old Testament</title>  <incipit xml:lang="lat">   <locus from="5rto="5r">5r</locus>In principio creavit    deus celum et terram </incipit>  <explicit xml:lang="lat">   <locus from="321vto="321v">321v</locus>non erit ut    ingratus hic ergo erit consummatus. </explicit>  <msItem n="2.1">   <locus from="5rto="21v">5r-21v</locus>   <title xml:lang="eng">Genesis</title>  </msItem> <!-- [...] --> </msItem>

2. Schema

2.1. Elements

2.1.1. <TEI>

<TEI> (TEI document) contains a single TEI-conformant document, combining a single TEI header with one or more members of the model.resource class. Multiple <TEI> elements may be combined within a <TEI> (or <teiCorpus>) element. [4. Default Text Structure 15.1. Varieties of Composite Text]
Module textstructure — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
version specifies the version number of the TEI Guidelines against which this document is valid.
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.version
Note

Major editions of the Guidelines have long been informally referred to by a name made up of the letter P (for Proposal) followed by a digit. The current release is one of the many releases of the fifth major edition of the Guidelines, known as P5. This attribute may be used to associate a TEI document with a specific release of the P5 Guidelines, in the absence of a more precise association provided by the source attribute on the associated <schemaSpec>.

Contained by
textstructure: TEI
May contain
header: teiHeader
textstructure: TEI text
transcr: facsimile
Note

This element is required. It is customary to specify the TEI namespace http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0 on it, using the xmlns attribute.

Example
<TEI version="3.3.0" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>The shortest TEI Document Imaginable</title>    </titleStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <p>First published as part of TEI P2, this is the P5          version using a name space.</p>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>  </teiHeader>  <text>   <body>    <p>This is about the shortest TEI document imaginable.</p>   </body>  </text> </TEI>
Example
<TEI version="2.9.1" xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0">  <teiHeader>   <fileDesc>    <titleStmt>     <title>A TEI Document containing four page images </title>    </titleStmt>    <publicationStmt>     <p>Unpublished demonstration file.</p>    </publicationStmt>    <sourceDesc>     <p>No source: this is an original work.</p>    </sourceDesc>   </fileDesc>  </teiHeader>  <facsimile>   <graphic url="page1.png"/>   <graphic url="page2.png"/>   <graphic url="page3.png"/>   <graphic url="page4.png"/>  </facsimile> </TEI>
Schematron
<sch:rule context="tei:TEI"> <sch:assert role="fatal"  test="matches(@xml:id, '^manuscript_\d+$') or contains(base-uri(.), 'genizah-mss')"> The root TEI element must have an @xml:id beginning with "manuscript_" then a number (which must also be unique across the entire catalogue). </sch:assert> <sch:assert role="fatal"  test="matches(@xml:id, '^volume_\d+$') or not(contains(base-uri(.), 'genizah-mss'))"> The root TEI element must have an @xml:id beginning with "volume_" then a number (which must also be unique across the entire catalogue). </sch:assert> </sch:rule>
Schematron
<sch:ns prefix="tei"  uri="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0"/> <sch:ns prefix="xs"  uri="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"/>
Schematron
<sch:ns prefix="rng"  uri="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"/>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="1">
  <elementRef key="teiHeader"/>
  <alternate maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="1">
   <sequence maxOccurs="1" minOccurs="1">
    <classRef key="model.resource"
     maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="1"/>
    <elementRef key="TEI"
     maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/>
   </sequence>
   <elementRef key="TEI"
    maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="1"/>
  </alternate>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element TEI
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   attribute version { text }?,
   ( teiHeader, ( ( model.resource+, TEI* ) | TEI+ ) )
}

2.1.2. <abbr>

<abbr> (abbreviation) contains an abbreviation of any sort. [3.6.5. Abbreviations and Their Expansions]
Module core — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (type, @subtype)
type (type) allows the encoder to classify the abbreviation according to some convenient typology.
Derived from att.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Sample values include:
suspension
(suspension) the abbreviation provides the first letter(s) of the word or phrase, omitting the remainder.
contraction
(contraction) the abbreviation omits some letter(s) in the middle.
brevigraph
the abbreviation comprises a special symbol or mark.
superscription
(superscription) the abbreviation includes writing above the line.
acronym
(acronym) the abbreviation comprises the initial letters of the words of a phrase.
title
(title) the abbreviation is for a title of address (Dr, Ms, Mr, …)
organization
(organization) the abbreviation is for the name of an organization.
geographic
(geographic) the abbreviation is for a geographic name.
Note

The type attribute is provided for the sake of those who wish to classify abbreviations at their point of occurrence; this may be useful in some circumstances, though usually the same abbreviation will have the same type in all occurrences. As the sample values make clear, abbreviations may be classified by the method used to construct them, the method of writing them, or the referent of the term abbreviated; the typology used is up to the encoder and should be carefully planned to meet the needs of the expected use. For a typology of Middle English abbreviations, see 6.2.

Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

If abbreviations are expanded silently, this practice should be documented in the <editorialDecl>, either with a <normalization> element or a <p>.

Example
<choice>  <expan>North Atlantic Treaty Organization</expan>  <abbr cert="low">NorATO</abbr>  <abbr cert="high">NATO</abbr>  <abbr cert="highxml:lang="fr">OTAN</abbr> </choice>
Example
<choice>  <abbr>SPQR</abbr>  <expan>senatus populusque romanorum</expan> </choice>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element abbr
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attribute.subtype,
   attribute type { text }?,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

2.1.3. <accMat>

<accMat> (accompanying material) contains details of any significant additional material which may be closely associated with the manuscript or object being described, such as non-contemporaneous documents or fragments bound in with it at some earlier historical period. [10.7.3.3. Accompanying Material]
Module msdescription — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
msdescription: physDesc
May contain
Example
<accMat>A copy of a tax form from 1947 is included in the envelope with the letter. It is not catalogued separately.</accMat>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element accMat
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}

2.1.4. <acquisition>

<acquisition> (acquisition) contains any descriptive or other information concerning the process by which a manuscript or manuscript part or other object entered the holding institution. [10.8. History]
Module msdescription — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Contained by
msdescription: history
May contain
Example
<acquisition>Left to the <name type="place">Bodleian</name> by <name type="person">Richard Rawlinson</name> in 1755. </acquisition>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element acquisition
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   macro.specialPara
}

2.1.5. <add>

<add> (addition) contains letters, words, or phrases inserted in the source text by an author, scribe, or a previous annotator or corrector. [3.5.3. Additions, Deletions, and Omissions]
Module core — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.transcriptional (@status, @cause, @seq) (att.editLike (@evidence, @instant)) (att.written (@hand)) att.placement (@place) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.dimensions (@unit, @quantity, @extent, @precision, @scope) (att.ranging (@atLeast, @atMost, @min, @max, @confidence))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

In a diplomatic edition attempting to represent an original source, the <add> element should not be used for additions to the current TEI electronic edition made by editors or encoders. In these cases, either the <corr> or <supplied> element are recommended.

In a TEI edition of a historical text with previous editorial emendations in which such additions or reconstructions are considered part of the source text, the use of <add> may be appropriate, dependent on the editorial philosophy of the project.

Example
The story I am going to relate is true as to its main facts, and as to the consequences <add place="above">of these facts</add> from which this tale takes its title.
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.paraContent"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element add
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.transcriptional.attributes,
   att.placement.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.dimensions.attributes,
   macro.paraContent
}

2.1.6. <addName>

<addName> (additional name) contains an additional name component, such as a nickname, epithet, or alias, or any other descriptive phrase used within a personal name. [13.2.1. Personal Names]
Module namesdates — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.personal (@full, @sort) (att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) ) att.typed (@type, @subtype)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Example
<persName>  <forename>Frederick</forename>  <addName type="epithet">the Great</addName>  <roleName>Emperor of Prussia</roleName> </persName>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element addName
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.personal.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

2.1.7. <additional>

<additional> (additional) groups additional information, combining bibliographic information about a manuscript or other object, or surrogate copies of it, with curatorial or administrative information. [10.9. Additional Information]
Module msdescription — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
msdescription: msDesc msFrag msPart
May contain
core: listBibl
msdescription: adminInfo surrogates
Example
<additional>  <adminInfo>   <recordHist>    <p> <!-- record history here -->    </p>   </recordHist>   <custodialHist>    <p> <!-- custodial history here -->    </p>   </custodialHist>  </adminInfo>  <surrogates>   <p> <!-- information about surrogates here -->   </p>  </surrogates>  <listBibl>   <bibl> <!-- ... -->   </bibl> <!-- full bibliography here -->  </listBibl> </additional>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="adminInfo" minOccurs="0"/>
  <elementRef key="surrogates"
   minOccurs="0"/>
  <elementRef key="listBibl" minOccurs="0"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element additional
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( adminInfo?, surrogates?, listBibl? )
}

2.1.8. <additions>

<additions> (additions) contains a description of any significant additions found within a manuscript or other object, such as marginalia or other annotations. [10.7.2. Writing, Decoration, and Other Notations]
Module msdescription — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
msdescription: physDesc
May contain
Example
<additions>  <p>There are several marginalia in this manuscript. Some consist of    single characters and others are figurative. On 8v is to be found a drawing of    a mans head wearing a hat. At times sentences occurs: On 5v:  <q xml:lang="is">Her er skrif andres isslendin</q>,    on 19r: <q xml:lang="is">þeim go</q>,    on 21r: <q xml:lang="is">amen med aund ok munn halla rei knar hofud summu all huad      batar þad mælgi ok mal</q>,    On 21v: some runic letters and the sentence <q xml:lang="la">aue maria gracia plena dominus</q>.</p> </additions>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.specialPara"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element additions { att.global.attributes, macro.specialPara }

2.1.9. <addrLine>

<addrLine> (address line) contains one line of a postal address. [3.6.2. Addresses 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 3.12.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Module core — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
core: address
May contain
Note

Addresses may be encoded either as a sequence of lines, or using any sequence of component elements from the model.addrPart class. Other non-postal forms of address, such as telephone numbers or email, should not be included within an <address> element directly but may be wrapped within an <addrLine> if they form part of the printed address in some source text.

Example
<address>  <addrLine>Computing Center, MC 135</addrLine>  <addrLine>P.O. Box 6998</addrLine>  <addrLine>Chicago, IL</addrLine>  <addrLine>60680 USA</addrLine> </address>
Example
<addrLine>  <ref target="tel:+1-201-555-0123">(201) 555 0123</ref> </addrLine>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element addrLine { att.global.attributes, macro.phraseSeq }

2.1.10. <address>

<address> (address) contains a postal address, for example of a publisher, an organization, or an individual. [3.6.2. Addresses 2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc. 3.12.2.4. Imprint, Size of a Document, and Reprint Information]
Module core — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

This element should be used for postal addresses only. Within it, the generic element <addrLine> may be used as an alternative to any of the more specialized elements available from the model.addrPart class, such as <street>, <postCode> etc.

Example Using just the elements defined by the core module, an address could be represented as follows:
<address>  <street>via Marsala 24</street>  <postCode>40126</postCode>  <name>Bologna</name>  <name>Italy</name> </address>
Example When a schema includes the names and dates module more specific elements such as country or settlement would be preferable over generic <name>:
<address>  <street>via Marsala 24</street>  <postCode>40126</postCode>  <settlement>Bologna</settlement>  <country>Italy</country> </address>
Example
<address>  <addrLine>Computing Center, MC 135</addrLine>  <addrLine>P.O. Box 6998</addrLine>  <addrLine>Chicago, IL 60680</addrLine>  <addrLine>USA</addrLine> </address>
Example
<address>  <country key="FR"/>  <settlement type="city">Lyon</settlement>  <postCode>69002</postCode>  <district type="arrondissement">IIème</district>  <district type="quartier">Perrache</district>  <street>   <num>30</num>, Cours de Verdun</street> </address>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <classRef key="model.global"
   maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/>
  <sequence maxOccurs="unbounded"
   minOccurs="1">
   <classRef key="model.addrPart"/>
   <classRef key="model.global"
    maxOccurs="unbounded" minOccurs="0"/>
  </sequence>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element address
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( model.global*, ( model.addrPart, model.global* )+ )
}

2.1.11. <adminInfo>

<adminInfo> (administrative information) contains information about the present custody and availability of the manuscript or other object, and also about the record description itself. [10.9.1. Administrative Information]
Module msdescription — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
msdescription: additional
May contain
core: note
header: availability
msdescription: custodialHist recordHist
Example
<adminInfo>  <recordHist>   <source>Record created <date>1 Aug 2004</date>   </source>  </recordHist>  <availability>   <p>Until 2015 permission to photocopy some materials from this      collection has been limited at the request of the donor. Please ask repository staff for details      if you are interested in obtaining photocopies from Series 1:      Correspondence.</p>  </availability>  <custodialHist>   <p>Collection donated to the Manuscript Library by the Estate of      Edgar Holden in 1993. Donor number: 1993-034.</p>  </custodialHist> </adminInfo>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <elementRef key="recordHist"
   minOccurs="0"/>
  <elementRef key="availability"
   minOccurs="0"/>
  <elementRef key="custodialHist"
   minOccurs="0"/>
  <classRef key="model.noteLike"
   minOccurs="0"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element adminInfo
{
   att.global.attributes,
   ( recordHist?, availability?, custodialHist?, model.noteLike? )
}

2.1.12. <altIdentifier>

<altIdentifier> (alternative identifier) contains an alternative or former structured identifier used for a manuscript or other object, such as a former catalogue number. [10.4. The Manuscript Identifier]
Module msdescription — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Contained by
msdescription: msFrag msIdentifier
May contain
Note

An identifying number of some kind must be supplied if known; if it is not known, this should be stated.

Example
<altIdentifier>  <settlement>San Marino</settlement>  <repository>Huntington Library</repository>  <idno>MS.El.26.C.9</idno> </altIdentifier>
Content model
<content>
 <sequence>
  <classRef expand="sequenceOptional"
   key="model.placeNamePart"/>
  <elementRef key="institution"
   minOccurs="0"/>
  <elementRef key="repository"
   minOccurs="0"/>
  <elementRef key="collection"
   minOccurs="0"/>
  <elementRef key="idno"/>
  <elementRef key="note" minOccurs="0"/>
 </sequence>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element altIdentifier
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   (
      placeName?,
      country?,
      region?,
      settlement?,
      district?,
      geogName?,
      institution?,
      repository?,
      collection?,
      idno,
      note?
   )
}

2.1.13. <am>

<am> (abbreviation marker) contains a sequence of letters or signs present in an abbreviation which are omitted or replaced in the expanded form of the abbreviation. [11.3.1.2. Abbreviation and Expansion]
Module transcr — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.typed (@type, @subtype) att.editLike (@evidence, @instant)
Member of
Contained by
May contain
transcr: damage supplied
character data
Example
do you <abbr>Mr<am>.</am> </abbr> Jones?
Example
<choice>  <abbr>Aug<am>g</am>  </abbr>  <expan>Aug<ex>ustorum duo</ex>  </expan> </choice>
Example
<abbr>eu<am>   <g ref="#b-er"/>  </am>y</abbr> <abbr>  <am>   <g ref="#b-per"/>  </am>sone </abbr> ...
Content model
<content>
 <alternate maxOccurs="unbounded"
  minOccurs="0">
  <textNode/>
  <classRef key="model.gLike"/>
  <classRef key="model.pPart.transcriptional"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element am
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.typed.attributes,
   att.editLike.attributes,
   ( text | model.gLike | model.pPart.transcriptional )*
}

2.1.14. <analytic>

<analytic> (analytic level) contains bibliographic elements describing an item (e.g. an article or poem) published within a monograph or journal and not as an independent publication. [3.12.2.1. Analytic, Monographic, and Series Levels]
Module core — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source))
Contained by
core: biblStruct
May contain
Note

May contain titles and statements of responsibility (author, editor, or other), in any order.

The <analytic> element may only occur within a <biblStruct>, where its use is mandatory for the description of an analytic level bibliographic item.

Example
<biblStruct>  <analytic>   <author>Chesnutt, David</author>   <title>Historical Editions in the States</title>  </analytic>  <monogr>   <title level="j">Computers and the Humanities</title>   <imprint>    <date when="1991-12">(December, 1991):</date>   </imprint>   <biblScope>25.6</biblScope>   <biblScope>377–380</biblScope>  </monogr> </biblStruct>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate maxOccurs="unbounded"
  minOccurs="0">
  <elementRef key="author"/>
  <elementRef key="editor"/>
  <elementRef key="respStmt"/>
  <elementRef key="title"/>
  <classRef key="model.ptrLike"/>
  <elementRef key="date"/>
  <elementRef key="textLang"/>
  <elementRef key="idno"/>
  <elementRef key="availability"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element analytic
{
   att.global.attributes,
   (
      authoreditorrespStmttitlemodel.ptrLikedatetextLangidnoavailability
   )*
}

2.1.15. <author>

<author> (author) in a bibliographic reference, contains the name(s) of an author, personal or corporate, of a work; for example in the same form as that provided by a recognized bibliographic name authority. [3.12.2.2. Titles, Authors, and Editors 2.2.1. The Title Statement]
Module core — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.naming (@role, @nymRef) (att.canonical (@key, @ref)) att.datable (@calendar, @period) (att.datable.w3c (@when, @notBefore, @notAfter, @from, @to)) (att.datable.iso (@when-iso, @notBefore-iso, @notAfter-iso, @from-iso, @to-iso)) (att.datable.custom (@when-custom, @notBefore-custom, @notAfter-custom, @from-custom, @to-custom, @datingPoint, @datingMethod))
Member of
Contained by
May contain
Note

Particularly where cataloguing is likely to be based on the content of the header, it is advisable to use a generally recognized name authority file to supply the content for this element. The attributes key or ref may also be used to reference canonical information about the author(s) intended from any appropriate authority, such as a library catalogue or online resource.

In the case of a broadcast, use this element for the name of the company or network responsible for making the broadcast.

Where an author is unknown or unspecified, this element may contain text such as Unknown or Anonymous. When the appropriate TEI modules are in use, it may also contain detailed tagging of the names used for people, organizations or places, in particular where multiple names are given.

Example
<author>British Broadcasting Corporation</author> <author>La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de (1634–1693)</author> <author>Anonymous</author> <author>Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation</author> <author>  <persName>Beaumont, Francis</persName> and <persName>John Fletcher</persName> </author> <author>  <orgName key="BBC">British Broadcasting    Corporation</orgName>: Radio 3 Network </author>
Schematron
<sch:rule context="//tei:msItem//tei:author[ancestor::tei:fileDesc[descendant::tei:idno[@type='catalogue']='Western']]"> <sch:assert test="@key[matches(., 'person_\d+')]">In the medieval catalogue, the author element, when a child of msItem, must have a key matching the pattern 'person_\d+'.</sch:assert> </sch:rule>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element author
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.naming.attributes,
   att.datable.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq
}

2.1.16. <authority>

<authority> (release authority) supplies the name of a person or other agency responsible for making a work available, other than a publisher or distributor. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Module header — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.canonical (@key, @ref)
Member of
Contained by
core: monogr
header: publicationStmt
May contain
Example
<authority>John Smith</authority>
Content model
<content>
 <macroRef key="macro.phraseSeq.limited"/>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element authority
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.canonical.attributes,
   macro.phraseSeq.limited
}

2.1.17. <availability>

<availability> (availability) supplies information about the availability of a text, for example any restrictions on its use or distribution, its copyright status, any licence applying to it, etc. [2.2.4. Publication, Distribution, Licensing, etc.]
Module header — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default)
status Specifies the availability of a manuscript. This attribute should not be used to specify the availability of manuscript metadata: use the <licence> element for that purpose.
Status Optional
Datatype 1–∞ occurrences of teidata.word separated by whitespace
Legal values are:
free
The item is available.
restricted
Access to the item is restricted for conservation or other reasons.
exhibition
The item is on exhibition at the owning library or another institution, and is likely to be temporarily unavailable.
offsite
The item is stored offsite, and will take at least twenty-four hours to produce.
printcat
The item is orderable through a catalogue of printed materials, typically because it is a fragment in a printed book or because it is part of a collection of mostly printed material.
none
The item cannot be ordered, typically either because it is a stub record or because it is not held by the library which is responsible for the catalogue.
unknown
Availability of the item is unknown.
Member of
Contained by
header: publicationStmt
msdescription: adminInfo
May contain
core: p
header: licence
Note

A consistent format should be adopted

Example
<availability status="restricted">  <p>Available for academic research purposes only.</p> </availability> <availability status="free">  <p>In the public domain</p> </availability> <availability status="restricted">  <p>Available under licence from the publishers.</p> </availability>
Example
<availability>  <licence target="http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT">   <p>The MIT License      applies to this document.</p>   <p>Copyright (C) 2011 by The University of Victoria</p>   <p>Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy      of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal      in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights      to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell      copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is      furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:</p>   <p>The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in      all copies or substantial portions of the Software.</p>   <p>THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR      IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,      FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE      AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER      LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,      OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN      THE SOFTWARE.</p>  </licence> </availability>
Content model
<content>
 <alternate maxOccurs="unbounded"
  minOccurs="1">
  <classRef key="model.availabilityPart"/>
  <classRef key="model.pLike"/>
 </alternate>
</content>
    
Schema Declaration
element availability
{
   att.global.attributes,
   att.declarable.attributes,
   attribute status
   {
      list
      {
         (
            "free"
          | "restricted"
          | "exhibition"
          | "offsite"
          | "printcat"
          | "none"
          | "unknown"
         )+
      }
   }?,
   ( model.availabilityPart | model.pLike )+
}

2.1.18. <bibl>

<bibl> (bibliographic citation) contains a loosely-structured bibliographic citation of which the sub-components may or may not be explicitly tagged. [3.12.1. Methods of Encoding Bibliographic References and Lists of References 2.2.7. The Source Description 15.3.2. Declarable Elements]
Module core — Schema
Attributes Attributes att.global (@xml:id, @n, @xml:lang, @xml:base, @xml:space) (att.global.rendition (@rend, @style, @rendition)) (att.global.linking (@corresp, @synch, @sameAs, @copyOf, @next, @prev, @exclude, @select)) (att.global.facs (@facs)) (att.global.change (@change)) (att.global.responsibility (@cert, @resp)) (att.global.source (@source)) att.declarable (@default) att.sortable (@sortKey) att.docStatus (@status) att.typed (type, @subtype)
type characterizes the element in some sense, using any convenient classification scheme or typology.
Derived from att.typed
Status Optional
Datatype teidata.enumerated
Suggested values include:
MS
The reference is to a manuscript
QUARTO
The reference is to the Bodleian Quarto Catalogues
SC
The reference is to the Bodleian Summary Catalogue
OC
The reference is to the Bodleian Old Catalogue
bible
The reference is to the bible
commentary
The reference is to a commentary
edition
The reference is to an edition
extract
The reference is to an extract
related
The reference is to a related item
text-relations
The reference is to a textually-related item
translation
The reference is to a translation
Member of
Contained by
May contain